manhattan project n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Manhattan Project PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Manhattan Project

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Manhattan Project - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 238 Views
  • Uploaded on

Manhattan Project. The project that brought an end to the S econd World War. By: Richie and Brendan. Nagasaki- Before and after. Hiroshima-Before and after. Introduction.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Manhattan Project' - garry


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
manhattan project

Manhattan Project

The project that brought an end to the Second World War.

By: Richie and Brendan

Nagasaki- Before and after

Hiroshima-Before and after

introduction
Introduction
  • The Manhattan Project was a confidential program run by the United States government helped by many scientist, such as Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein was a famous, Jewish scientist, that helped the United States create a nuclear weapon. At first he was a scientist for Germany, but then Hitler dispersed of all of his Jewish scientists. Albert Einstein developed a series of five letters to President Roosevelt. The first letter said that Germany was constructing a new type of weapon and it described the new energy source made. The second letter gave more specific detail on how the atom bomb was created and it said that an atom must be split to obtain this energy. Heavier elements such as uranium worked best. When the time came to drop the bomb President Truman had thoughtThe atomic bomb was first made and tested during World War II (WWII), on July 16 1945. The first atom bomb, or the Trinity Test, was conducted in a desert in New Mexico. The first atom bomb used in history, during warfare, was the little boy dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945 8:15 A.M. The bomb was dropped from a bomber named Enola Gay.
the construction of the bomb
The Construction of the Bomb
  • Creating the first atomic bomb was a very complicated task. To make an atomic bomb you must achieve Fission of an atom. To do this you must send a neutron through an atom. However a simple as this may seem, it is very difficult. It could not be any atom that had to be split it would have to be a heavier element. One of these elements is uranium-235. This element has 43 protons and 43 electrons. There are always the same amount of protons as there are electrons, to keep the atom balanced. When a neutron goes through the center of the atom it splits making two smaller elements. However the two smaller elements are not the same size as Uranium-235:
  • Once the Uranium-235 was split, it made two elements smaller than itself, along with energy. In the bombs created during the Manhattan project, this energy was seen as an explosion, but today we can also use this as a source of energy called Nuclear energy. This was a revolutionary idea that changed the world forever.

Uranium-235

Energy

enola gay b 29 superfortress
Enola Gay- B-29 superfortress

The Boeing B-29 superfortress was the most state of the art airplane at the time of its manufacturing. It could carry a lot with the most complex engine of its time, but the atomic bomb 1500was still to much for it. By the time it was loaded it was 1500 pounds over what it was suppose to carry.

When it was time to take off the Enola Gay almost didn’t take off.

robert julius oppenheimer
Robert Julius Oppenheimer

Robert J. Oppenheim was very high up in the Manhattan project. He was born in New York, New York during the year of 1904, April 22nd. He was a top contributor to the atomic bomb. At the age of 22 he received his Ph.D., or doctors degree in physics. In 1940 he married. Once World War two started Robert Oppenhiemer raced to create an atomic bomb. Robert Oppenhiemer guided the construction of the laboratories in Las Alamos. Oppenhiemer managed more than three thousand scientist. After Robert Oppenhiemer’s second child was born, a nuclear bomb, the first nuclear bomb, exploded in Alamogordo July 16 1945. This first nuclear

explosion (which Oppenhiemer named Trinity) broke records, it split

the first

contributors
Contributors
  • One main contributor (besides Robert Oppenheimer) was Albert Einstein. He helped developed what is now considered basic theories of relativity. This was very critical to the Manhattan Project.
  • President Truman was also a critical part of the Manhattan project. He was the president that decided which city to drop the two bombs on. He also gave the final approval to drop the bomb.
  • President Roosevelt also had a large part in the Manhattan Project. Albert Einstein wrote his letters to this president. He made the first decision to start making a bomb.
  • Pilot Tibbets also had a pretty large part in this project. He was the one who dropped the bomb on Hiroshima.
  • General Dwight Eisenhower also had a significant part in the project. He overlooked the project.
hiroshima bombing
Hiroshima Bombing
  • The atom bomb exploding over Hiroshima was the most surprising and most devastating of the two atomic bombs because of the size of the casualties and the strength of the actual blast. Peace councils have been trying to stop the use of atomic weapons. The Blast at Hiroshima was equal to thirteen kilotons of TNT.
nagasaki bombing
Nagasaki Bombing

Three days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan did not surrender which drove the United States to drop the second atom bomb. The Fat Man bomb was a plutonium-grade bomb which was larger than Little Boy but still had less of an explosion. This was because plutonium was more stable than uranium and needed to be in a larger amount to produce the same explosion.

why we dropped the bomb
Why We Dropped the Bomb
  • The first atomic bomb started the almost total destruction of two of Japan's industrial cities because of (what some theories suggest) a revenge driven attack in retaliation from Pearl Harbor. Many experts have different theories to why the atom bomb was dropped such as because we could and to beat the Soviet Union in a nuclear arms race.
timeline of key events
Timeline of key events
  • Harold C. Urey finds an element that later tribute to the atom bomb. 1931 James Chadwick proves that neutrons, part the atom’s nucleus do exist. 1932August 2, 1939, Albert Einstein’s first letter to President Franklin Roosevelt. November 29, 1943 The United States remakes a plane so that it is capable of transporting an atom bomb July 16, 1945 Trinity test of atomic bomb in New MexicoAugust 6, 1945 Atomic bomb named "Little Boy" Dropped on the Japanese city of HiroshimaAugust 9, 1945 Atomic bomb named "Fat Man" dropped on Nagasaki
external links
External Links:
  • http://www.weebly.com/weebly/main.php
  • http://hypertextbook.com/eworld/einstein.shtml
  • http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-cold-war/manhattan-project/tube-alloys-deal_1944-09-19.htm
  • These are websites that I either made, or is mentioned in the bibliography.
bibliography
Bibliography:
  • "The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org]." Ushistory.org. United States History. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/51f.asp>. This website informed the group just how astronomical the research of the atomic bomb cost. The millions upon billions of dollars that the entire Manhattan Project cost was, what some say, a complete and utter success. It also has analysis papers and charts to compare just how much this project costs compared to other huge projects. "The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II." The George Washington University. Ed. William Burr. 5 Aug. 2005. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. <http://www.gwu.edu>. This website provided us with tons of useful information such as the background of the Atomic bomb. I learned that the War Department advisers, among others, worried about the political and military problems. They also worried about the possibilities raised by the project. "Atomicage.cfm || Tour." The National Museum of Nuclear Science & History. Web. 25 Jan. 2012.< http://www.nuclearmuseum.org/tour/atomicage.cfm>. This website contained a lot of information about the construction of the bomb. Such as the mathematical equations about how the bomb would explode. This website had who first discovered the Uranium Atom. This was a site about a faxed newspaper, or comic. It was printed during the 1940's. It was made after the dropping of Trinity, Little Boy, and Fat Man. This site illustrated the opinion of local journalist. Such as, he believed that the “Doctorine for Joint Theater Nuclear Operations,” was a “senseless policy.” "Cdi.org." CDI - Center for Defense Information - Security Policy Research Organization. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.cdi.org/Issues/NukeAccidents/accidents.htm>.
slide13

"Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists." Google Books. Google. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.< http://books.google.com/books?id=sgsAAAAAMBAJ>. On this website, we learned that people are still pondering the purpose of nuclear power nowadays. There is a large risk to the civilians as well as the military staff that associate themselves with these nuclear weapons. Like in the Suisun Air Force Base in Fairfield, California. A B-29 bomber, that was carrying 500 pound explosive bombs, crashed when it was trying to make an emergency stop.The bombs exploded fifteen minutes after the crash, killing eighteen people andinjuring sixty others."Einstein's Letters to Roosevelt." Hypertextbook.com. Web. 06 Jan. 2012.In this article it has Einstein's first letter to President Roosevelt that started the discussion about the creation of the atomic bomb. The letter helped Roosevelt with the contemplation on creating a super weapon. We also learned, at the time, when they were constructing the atomic bomb, that the United States had only few rocks that contained uranium in moderate quantities. "Estimated Minimum Incurred Costs of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Programs, 1940-1996* - BrookingsInstitution." Brookings - Quality. Independence. Impact. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.brookings.edu/projects/archive/nucweapons/figure1.aspx>.

slide14

"History of the Atomic Bomb and The Manhattan Project." Inventors. Web. 19 Dec. 2011.< http://inventors.about.com/od/astartinventions/a/atomic_bomb.htm>.

  • The site illustrated how much the nuclear program for the United States cost. The price, displayed on a pie chart, was$5,821.0 billion. It had the average cost for nuclear programs from 1940-1996.
  • This site provided us with dates and the basic knowledge on the atom bomb, and the Manhattan project. The Manhattan Project was research to figure out how to create a usable atom bomb. Also they used uranium so there would be a chain reaction for the explostion."Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: History: Pre Cold War: Manhattan Project: Fat Man." Nuclear Files - From Nuclear Proliferation to Nuclear Testing, from Hiroshima to North Korea, Nuclear Files Offers the A to Z on Nuclear Issues. Web. 19 Dec. 2011.< http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-cold-war/manhattan-project/fatman.htm>.This part of a website consists of general information on the atomic bomb named Fat Man. It informs us about how the bomb was created, what it was made of, which was plutonium, and what city it was dropped on, which was Nagasaki. It also had images of the creation and the finished version of the bomb.
slide15

"Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: History: Pre Cold War: Manhattan Project: Tube Alloys Deal." Nuclear Files - From Nuclear Proliferation to Nuclear Testing, from Hiroshima to North Korea, Nuclear Files Offers the A to Z on Nuclear Issues. Web. 19 Dec. 2011.This website is about the agreement between the United States and Britain to not abuse the power of the atomic bomb. It also is about the plan to hit Japan with an atomic bomb on two of its cities. The hopes of the atomic bombs were to end World War Two."Manhattan Project - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Manhattan_Project>.This is a credible site based on how the atom bomb was devised. It also explains why it was first thought of. It was because the United States feared that Nazi Germany were inventing a super weapon. This site has how much it cost to run the atom bomb back then. It was two billion dollars.

  • "Manhattan Project." Interview by Richie Lavey, Brendan Kinney, and Brad Morrison. 27 Jan. 2012: 1. Print. From this interview we learned many things. One thing that we learned was other experts to interview in the future. Also we learned other people who contributed to the Atom Bomb.
slide16

"The Manhattan Project." NSF GK-12 Fellowship Program. n/a. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.< http://gk12.rice.edu/trs/science/Atom/man.htm>. This site displayed a fair amount of information, such as, in Nagasaki, 39 thousand people died from the explosion. In Hiroshima, 66 thousand instantly died from the bomb. Also the site had the names of the two atomic bombs, which were Little Boy and Fat Man. Albert Einstein and J. Robert Openheimer were two of the scientists involved.NTI. "United States | Country Profiles | NTI." Nuclear Threat Initiative. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.< http://www.nti.org/country-profiles/united-states/>. It displayed accurately when the United States started the nuclear research. They started when they heard rumors that the Nazis were building a weapon of mass destruction. Also when the first bomb was dropped, which was on April 6, 1945. Pellegrino, Charles R. The Last Train from Hiroshima: The Survivors Look Back. New York: Henry Holt and, 2010. Print. This book had eyewitness accounts include one from a man named Tsutomu Yamaguchi. This man left Hiroshima after the detonation of the first bomb, and then traveled to the "safety" of Nagasaki. He is the only man known to survive both explosions.

slide17

Prouty, Doug. "The Race to Build the Atomic Bomb." Contra Costa County Office of Education. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://intergate.cccoe.k12.ca.us/abomb/>.

  • This website had facts about American, Japanese, and German efforts to build the atomic bomb. It mentions Japan's failed attempts at trying to bring uranium to their own atomic bomb project. The website also has the names the scientists who worked on the bomb for the United States such as Oppenheimer and Einstein. Settle, Frank. "Nuclear Chemistry - The First Atomic Bombs." Chemistry and Decision Making. Chemcases.com. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://chemcases.com/nuclear/nc-09.html>.This site had how the atom bomb was made. The atom bomb was made from a chemical reaction. This site helps to illustrate how the chain reaction happened, and how we found out about the chain reaction.