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Project Scheduling. By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal School of Housing, Building & Planning Universiti Sains Malaysia. Project Scheduling. A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality. Project Scheduling Objectives.

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project scheduling

Project Scheduling

By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal

School of Housing, Building & Planning

Universiti Sains Malaysia

project scheduling1
Project Scheduling
  • A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality.
project scheduling objectives
Project Scheduling Objectives
  • Estimating time of project by determining the earliest start and finish of each activity.
    • Finding the minimum cost schedule needed to complete the project by a certain date.
    • Investigating the results of possible delays in activity’s completion time.
project scheduling objectives1
Project Scheduling Objectives
  • Progress control.
  • Smoothing out resource allocation over the duration of the project.
project scheduling2
Project Scheduling
  • Tasks are called “activities.”

- Estimated completion time (and sometimes costs) are associated with each activity.

- Activity completion time is related to the amount of resources committed to it.

- The degree of activity details depends on the application and how specific is the data.

identifying the activities of a project
Identifying the Activities of a Project
  • To determine optimal schedules we need to
    • Identify all the project’s activities.
    • Determine the precedence relations among activities.
identifying activities
Identifying Activities
  • Example:

- Company A is a contractor & they need to construct a house.

identifying activities1
Identifying Activities
  • Major task they need to perform & complete:

- Sub-structure

- Superstructure

- Internal Finishes

- Services and finishing

- External Works

identifying activities2
Identifying Activities
  • Company A needs to develop a precedence relations chart.
  • The chart gives a concise set of tasks and their immediate predecessors.
identifying activities3
Identifying Activities


A Piling

Sub-Structure B Pile caps and ground beams


D Upper Floors

E Roof

F Stairs and Ramps

Superstructure G External Walls

H Windows and External Doors

I Internal Walls and Partitions

J Internal Doors

Internal Finishes K Wall finishes

L Floor Finishes

M Ceiling Finishes

identifying activities4
Identifying Activities


N Sanitary installation

Services & Finishing O Water installation

PElectrical installation

QRoad, Paths, Pavings & Surfacing

External Works R Landscaping and Irrigation Systems

S Fencing

T External drainage

U External services

From the activity description chart, we can determine immediate predecessors for each activity.

scheduling tools techniques
Scheduling Tools & Techniques
  • Mathematical Analysis

- calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all projects activities without regard for any resource limitations.

- The resulting dates are not schedule, but it indicate the time period within which activity should be schedule.

mathematical analysis
Mathematical Analysis
  • Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (GERT)
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
scheduling tools techniques1
Scheduling Tools & Techniques
  • Bar Charts

- Milestone charts

- Gantt charts

  • Horizontal time scale is used, often divided into weeks.
  • Various operations comprising the project are listed vertically down the left-hand side.
bar charts
Bar Charts
  • The timing and duration of each operation indicated by a horizontal bar spanning the relevant period of weeks and shown on the same line as the operation it refers to.