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Project Scheduling

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  1. Project Scheduling By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal School of Housing, Building & Planning Universiti Sains Malaysia

  2. Project Scheduling • A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality.

  3. Project Scheduling Objectives • Estimating time of project by determining the earliest start and finish of each activity. • Finding the minimum cost schedule needed to complete the project by a certain date. • Investigating the results of possible delays in activity’s completion time.

  4. Project Scheduling Objectives • Progress control. • Smoothing out resource allocation over the duration of the project.

  5. Project Scheduling • Tasks are called “activities.” - Estimated completion time (and sometimes costs) are associated with each activity. - Activity completion time is related to the amount of resources committed to it. - The degree of activity details depends on the application and how specific is the data.

  6. Identifying the Activities of a Project • To determine optimal schedules we need to • Identify all the project’s activities. • Determine the precedence relations among activities.

  7. Identifying Activities • Example: - Company A is a contractor & they need to construct a house.

  8. Identifying Activities • Major task they need to perform & complete: - Sub-structure - Superstructure - Internal Finishes - Services and finishing - External Works

  9. Identifying Activities • Company A needs to develop a precedence relations chart. • The chart gives a concise set of tasks and their immediate predecessors.

  10. Identifying Activities ActivityDescription A Piling Sub-Structure B Pile caps and ground beams CFrame D Upper Floors E Roof F Stairs and Ramps Superstructure G External Walls H Windows and External Doors I Internal Walls and Partitions J Internal Doors Internal Finishes K Wall finishes L Floor Finishes M Ceiling Finishes

  11. Identifying Activities ActivityDescription N Sanitary installation Services & Finishing O Water installation PElectrical installation QRoad, Paths, Pavings & Surfacing External Works R Landscaping and Irrigation Systems S Fencing T External drainage U External services From the activity description chart, we can determine immediate predecessors for each activity.

  12. Scheduling Tools & Techniques • Mathematical Analysis - calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all projects activities without regard for any resource limitations. - The resulting dates are not schedule, but it indicate the time period within which activity should be schedule.

  13. Mathematical Analysis • Critical Path Method (CPM) • Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (GERT) • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

  14. Scheduling Tools & Techniques • Bar Charts - Milestone charts - Gantt charts • Horizontal time scale is used, often divided into weeks. • Various operations comprising the project are listed vertically down the left-hand side.

  15. Bar Charts • The timing and duration of each operation indicated by a horizontal bar spanning the relevant period of weeks and shown on the same line as the operation it refers to.

  16. Example of Bar Charts

  17. Example of Bar Charts

  18. Example of Bar Charts

  19. Example of Bar Charts