Project Scheduling By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal School of Housing, Building & Planning Universiti Sains Malaysia
Project Scheduling • A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality.
Project Scheduling Objectives • Estimating time of project by determining the earliest start and finish of each activity. • Finding the minimum cost schedule needed to complete the project by a certain date. • Investigating the results of possible delays in activity’s completion time.
Project Scheduling Objectives • Progress control. • Smoothing out resource allocation over the duration of the project.
Project Scheduling • Tasks are called “activities.” - Estimated completion time (and sometimes costs) are associated with each activity. - Activity completion time is related to the amount of resources committed to it. - The degree of activity details depends on the application and how specific is the data.
Identifying the Activities of a Project • To determine optimal schedules we need to • Identify all the project’s activities. • Determine the precedence relations among activities.
Identifying Activities • Example: - Company A is a contractor & they need to construct a house.
Identifying Activities • Major task they need to perform & complete: - Sub-structure - Superstructure - Internal Finishes - Services and finishing - External Works
Identifying Activities • Company A needs to develop a precedence relations chart. • The chart gives a concise set of tasks and their immediate predecessors.
Identifying Activities ActivityDescription A Piling Sub-Structure B Pile caps and ground beams CFrame D Upper Floors E Roof F Stairs and Ramps Superstructure G External Walls H Windows and External Doors I Internal Walls and Partitions J Internal Doors Internal Finishes K Wall finishes L Floor Finishes M Ceiling Finishes
Identifying Activities ActivityDescription N Sanitary installation Services & Finishing O Water installation PElectrical installation QRoad, Paths, Pavings & Surfacing External Works R Landscaping and Irrigation Systems S Fencing T External drainage U External services From the activity description chart, we can determine immediate predecessors for each activity.
Scheduling Tools & Techniques • Mathematical Analysis - calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all projects activities without regard for any resource limitations. - The resulting dates are not schedule, but it indicate the time period within which activity should be schedule.
Mathematical Analysis • Critical Path Method (CPM) • Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (GERT) • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Scheduling Tools & Techniques • Bar Charts - Milestone charts - Gantt charts • Horizontal time scale is used, often divided into weeks. • Various operations comprising the project are listed vertically down the left-hand side.
Bar Charts • The timing and duration of each operation indicated by a horizontal bar spanning the relevant period of weeks and shown on the same line as the operation it refers to.