adjustment to hazards smith 2002 ch 4 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Adjustment to Hazards ( Smith, 2002: Ch 4 ) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Adjustment to Hazards ( Smith, 2002: Ch 4 )

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Adjustment to Hazards ( Smith, 2002: Ch 4 ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on

Geography 106b Hazards. Adjustment to Hazards ( Smith, 2002: Ch 4 ). factors affecting adjustment to hazard accepting loss sharing loss (emphasis in this lecture on collective adjustments). Three Categories of Adjustment: 1) Modify Loss Burden. loss sharing

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Adjustment to Hazards ( Smith, 2002: Ch 4 )' - garnet


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
adjustment to hazards smith 2002 ch 4

Geography 106bHazards

Adjustment to Hazards(Smith, 2002: Ch 4)
  • factors affecting adjustment to hazard
  • accepting loss
  • sharing loss

(emphasis in this lecture on collective adjustments)

Geog 2152

three categories of adjustment 1 modify loss burden
Three Categories of Adjustment:1) Modify Loss Burden
  • loss sharing
  • spread burden well beyond immediate victims
  • e.g, insurance, relief aid

Geog 2152

loss sharing
Loss Sharing

Geog 2152

three categories of adjustment 2 modify hazard events
Three Categories of Adjustment:2) Modify Hazard Events
  • loss reduction
  • depends on good knowledge base about the hazard – “experienced”
  • e.g., design, engineering
  • e.g., hazard resistant buildings

Source: http://www.eng.uwo.ca/research/ttlpp/

Geog 2152

three categories of adjustment 3 modify human vulnerability
Three Categories of Adjustment:3) Modify Human Vulnerability
  • largest category of responses
  • adjust people to the events
  • preparedness, landuse planning, avoidance
  • prediction key – forecasting and warning

Geog 2152

factors affecting general adjustment choices
Factors Affecting General Adjustment Choices
  • hazards not typically on political “radar” – vs e.g, unemployment, inflation, crime, healthcare
  • radical vulnerability adjustment unrealistic – e.g., moving whole communities
  • costs of alternatives vary widely
  • debate - who should bear cost
  • therefore: cost-benefit assessment of options required

Geog 2152

role of government
Role of Government?

Question

  • How much should governments intervene to help absorb hazard losses – e.g., floods?
  • Specifically, what “mechanisms” should they use?
  • Who should pay for losses (what’s fair)?

Geog 2152

losses two scenarios
LossesTwo Scenarios

accepting loss - “free” choice

  • “no-action” response
  • people choose to live/act how they want relative to hazards
  • e.g., floodplain housing = cheap!
  • assumes: people have good information; choice is not constrained by capital (more about this next day)

share loss - government intervention

  • typically governments intervene once disaster happens (re: political ramifications otherwise)
  • motivated somewhat to reduce individual/community vulnerability to keep post-event costs low

Geog 2152

sharing loss
Sharing Loss
  • external government aid - disaster aid (e.g., UNICEF, UNDRO, WFP)
  • internal government aid
  • inter-community aid
  • commercial insurance

Geog 2152

problems sharing losses
Problems “Sharing Losses”
  • sudden-onset draw more $
  • donor fatigue
  • golden hours critical – e.g, 90% earthquake victims in first 24 hours 2-6 hours most critical
  • recovery takes a very long time – aid/relief enthusiasm wanes in later periods
  • rising costs of relief – e.g., compensating the wealthy

Geog 2152

commercial insurance
Commercial Insurance
  • Identify some advantages and disadvantages of commercial insurance for hazard losses.

Geog 2152

commercial insurance14
Commercial Insurance

Advantages

  • predictable compensation
  • private market driven
  • potential equitable distribution of costs (if data good)
  • encourage mitigative measures for policy holders = reduced risk

Disadvantages

  • mainly a solution for MDCs
  • unobtainable in high risk areas
  • low uptake of hazard insurance
  • potential inequitable distribution of costs
  • moral hazard problem unduly raises premiums

Geog 2152

factors affecting individual adjustment choices example
Factors Affecting Individual Adjustment ChoicesExample
  • Assuming adjustment to hazard has something to do with the perception of hazard frequency – what do you feel is the probability (0.0 = 0% chance; 1.0 = 100% chance) of each of the following natural hazards occurring in London over the next 50 years?
    • Tornado
    • Hurricane
    • Flood
    • Debilitating Ice Storm
    • Major Blizzard

Geog 2152

factors affecting individual adjustment choices experience and probability estimates
Factors Affecting Individual Adjustment ChoicesExperience and Probability Estimates

Londoners underestimate

Londoners overestimate

Londoners underestimate

Geog 2152

factors affecting individual adjustment choices experience and probability estimates17
Factors Affecting Individual Adjustment ChoicesExperience and Probability Estimates

Londoners overestimate

Londoners underestimate

Geog 2152

factors affecting individual adjustment choices
Factors Affecting Individual Adjustment Choices
  • experience – more experience = more likelihood of adjustment
  • material wealth – including capital, resources (e.g., information) – wider range of options
  • personality – risk taker? confidence in the future (see risk perception lecture)
  • type of hazard – dreaded? (see risk perception lecture)

Geog 2152

prospect theory
Prospect Theory
  • In each example, which option do you do you prefer:
  • a) 0.01 probability of gaining $1000 dollars;

b) 0.99 probability of gaining $100.

  • a) 0.01 probability of losing $1000 dollars

b) 0.99 probability of losing $100.

Geog 2152

losses valued more
Losses “Valued” More
  • generally people are much more willing to do something to protect against loss than they are willing to gamble on an equivalent gain

Geog 2152