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Inventories. 8. Managing Inventories. OBJECTIVE 1: Explain the management decisions related to inventory accounting, evaluation of inventory level, and the effects of inventory misstatements on income measurement. Key Ratios. I nventory turnover D ays’ inventory on hand.

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managing inventories
Managing Inventories

OBJECTIVE 1: Explain the management decisions related to inventory accounting, evaluation of inventory level, and the effects of inventory misstatements on income measurement.

key ratios
Key Ratios
  • Inventory turnover
  • Days’ inventory on hand
managing inventories1
Managing Inventories
  • Merchandise inventory is a current asset.
    • The matching principle is applied to inventory valuation.
    • The higher the ending inventory, the lower the cost of goods sold and the higher the gross profit and net income.
managing inventories2
Managing Inventories
  • Merchandise inventory is a current asset. (cont.)
    • Management chooses an inventory system (periodic or perpetual), an inventory costing system (specific identification, average cost, FIFO, or LIFO), and a method of valuing inventory at market.
managing inventories3
Managing Inventories
  • In managing inventory levels, it is important to take into consideration both the costs of handling, storing, and financing inventories and the cost of lost sales.
    • Inventory turnover (cost of goods sold divided by average inventory) is the number of times, on average, inventory is sold during the period.
    • Days’ inventory on hand (365 divided by inventory turnover) is the number of days it takes to sell inventory.
managing inventories4
Managing Inventories
  • In managing inventory levels, it is important to take into consideration both the costs of handling, storing, and financing inventories and the cost of lost sales. (cont.)
    • Inventory levels are minimized by using supply-chain management in a just-in-time operating environment.
managing inventories5
Managing Inventories
  • Beginning and ending inventory are an integral part of the calculation of cost of goods sold and, therefore, income before income taxes.
    • When ending inventory is under- or overstated, income before income taxes will be under- or overstated, respectively.
    • When beginning inventory is under- or overstated, income before income taxes will be over- or understated, respectively.
managing inventories6
Managing Inventories
  • Beginning and ending inventory are an integral part of the calculation of cost of goods sold and, therefore, income before income taxes. (cont.)
    • Inventory errors are counterbalancing because their effects are reversed within two accounting periods.
inventory cost and valuation
Inventory Cost and Valuation

OBJECTIVE 2: Define inventory cost, contrast goods flow and cost flow, and explain the lower-of-cost-or-market (LCM) rule.

inventory cost and valuation1
Inventory Cost and Valuation
  • Inventory cost includes purchase price less discounts; freight-in and insurance in transit; and taxes and tariffs.
inventory cost and valuation2
Inventory Cost and Valuation
  • Goods flows and cost flows
    • Goods flow is the actual physical flow of goods into and out of the company.
    • Cost flow is an assumption made about costs for accounting purposes.
inventory cost and valuation3
Inventory Cost and Valuation
  • Goods flows and cost flows (cont.)
    • Merchandise inventory also includes the following costs:
      • Incoming goods shipped FOB shipping point
      • Outgoing goods shipped FOB destination
      • Goods consigned to another company
inventory cost and valuation4
Inventory Cost and Valuation
  • Goods flows and cost flows (cont.)
    • Merchandise inventory would not include the following costs:
      • Incoming goods shipped FOB destination
      • Outgoing goods shipped FOB shipping point
      • Goods held on consignment from another company
inventory cost and valuation5
Inventory Cost and Valuation
  • Inventory should be valued at the lower of cost or market.
    • First, cost is determined by historical, or original, cost.
    • Market is defined as replacement cost.
    • Cost is compared with market.
    • Use of LCM can be an indicator that a company is in trouble.
inventory cost under the periodic inventory system
Inventory Cost Under the Periodic Inventory System

OBJECTIVE 3: Calculate inventory cost under the periodic inventory system using various costing methods.

slide23
Figure 5: The Impact of Costing Methods on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet Under the Periodic Inventory System
inventory cost under the periodic inventory system1
Inventory Cost Under the Periodic Inventory System
  • Under the specific identification method, ending inventory can be identified as having come from specific purchases.
    • The specific identification method is used primarily for high-priced items such as automobiles, furniture, and expensive jewelry.
inventory cost under the periodic inventory system2
Inventory Cost Under the Periodic Inventory System
  • Under the average-cost method, an average cost per unit is calculated on goods available for sale to determine ending inventory and cost of goods sold.
    • An advantage of the average-cost method is that cost increases and decreases are leveled out.
    • A disadvantage of the average-cost method is that the most current costs are not used in income determination.
inventory cost under the periodic inventory system3
Inventory Cost Under the Periodic Inventory System
  • Under FIFO, the first goods purchased are assumed to be the first sold.
    • In a period of rising prices, FIFO will produce the highest net income of the four methods.
    • FIFO is criticized for magnifying the effects of the business cycle on income.
inventory cost under the periodic inventory system4
Inventory Cost Under the Periodic Inventory System
  • Under LIFO, the goods purchased most recently are assumed to be the first sold.
    • LIFO matches current costs with current revenues, and the effects of the business cycle are smoothed out.
    • Disadvantages of LIFO include reporting the lowest net income of the four methods in inflationary times, often an unrealistic inventory valuation, and lack of acceptance in most other countries.
impact of inventory decisions
Impact of Inventory Decisions

OBJECTIVE 4: Explain the effects of inventory costing methods on income determination and income taxes.

impact of inventory decisions1
Impact of Inventory Decisions
  • During periods of rising prices, FIFO provides a higher gross margin than LIFO. The average-cost method produces gross margin that is between those of FIFO and LIFO. No generalization can be made about the specific identification method.
    • During periods of falling prices, LIFO produces a higher gross margin than FIFO.
impact of inventory decisions2
Impact of Inventory Decisions
  • Effects on the financial statements
    • In general, LIFO best follows the matching rule.
    • In general, FIFO provides a more up-to-date ending inventory figure for balance sheet purposes.
    • The inventory method chosen must be applied consistently. When LIFO is used for tax purposes, it must also be used for financial reporting.
impact of inventory decisions3
Impact of Inventory Decisions
  • A LIFO liquidation occurs when the quantity of ending inventory is less than the quantity of beginning inventory. This generally produces higher income before taxes.
    • When ending inventory is understated, income before income taxes for the period will be understated.
    • When ending inventory is overstated, income before income taxes for the period will be overstated.
impact of inventory decisions4
Impact of Inventory Decisions
  • A LIFO liquidation occurs when the quantity of ending inventory is less than the quantity of beginning inventory. This generally produces higher income before taxes. (cont.)
    • When beginning inventory is understated, income before income taxes for the period will be overstated.
    • When beginning inventory is overstated, income before income taxes for the period will be understated.
impact of inventory decisions5
Impact of Inventory Decisions
  • A company’s choice of inventory method will affect not only its profitability, but also its liquidity and cash flows.
inventory cost under the perpetual inventory system
Inventory Cost Under the Perpetual Inventory System

SUPPLEMENTAL OBJECTIVE 5: Calculate inventory cost under the perpetual inventory system using various costing methods.

slide39
Figure 7: The Impact of Costing Methods on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet Under the Perpetual Inventory System
inventory cost under the perpetual inventory system1
Inventory Cost Under the Perpetual Inventory System
  • The specific identification method is applied the same way in the perpetual system as in the periodic system and produces the same results.
  • Using the average-cost method in a perpetual system, a moving average is computed after each purchase.
inventory cost under the perpetual inventory system2
Inventory Cost Under the Perpetual Inventory System
  • Using FIFO and LIFO in a perpetual system, list each inventory layer separately.
  • FIFO will yield the same ending inventory figure under the perpetual system as under the periodic system.
inventory cost under the perpetual inventory system3
Inventory Cost Under the Perpetual Inventory System
  • LIFO will usually produce different figures for ending inventory and cost of goods sold in a perpetual system than in a periodic system.
valuing inventory by estimation
Valuing Inventory by Estimation

SUPPLEMENTAL OBJECTIVE 6: Use the retail method and gross profit method to estimate the cost of ending inventory.

valuing inventory by estimation1
Valuing Inventory by Estimation
  • The retail method can be used when the relationship between cost and selling price is relatively constant. Applying this method is complicated by retail prices that change during the year, different markups that exist on different types of merchandise, and sales volumes of different types of merchandise that vary.
    • With the retail method, records must be kept at cost and at retail.
valuing inventory by estimation2
Valuing Inventory by Estimation
  • The retail method can be used when the relationship between cost and selling price is relatively constant. Applying this method is complicated by retail prices that change during the year, different markups that exist on different types of merchandise, and sales volumes of different types of merchandise that vary. (cont.)
valuing inventory by estimation3
Valuing Inventory by Estimation
  • Applying the retail method involves four steps.
    • Compute goods available for sale at cost and at retail.
    • Compute a cost-to-retail ratio.
    • Subtract sales from goods available for sale at retail to obtain ending inventory at retail.
    • Multiply ending inventory at retail by the cost-to-retail ratio to determine ending inventory at cost.
valuing inventory by estimation4
Valuing Inventory by Estimation
  • The gross profit method can be used when the gross profit ratio remains relatively constant.
    • The gross profit method is used in place of the retail method when records of retail prices of beginning inventory and purchases are not kept.
    • The gross profit method is generally used when inventory is destroyed or stolen.
valuing inventory by estimation5
Valuing Inventory by Estimation
  • The gross profit method can be used when the gross profit ratio remains relatively constant.
    • Applying the gross profit method involves three steps.
      • Compute goods available for sale (at cost) by adding purchases to beginning inventory.
      • Compute estimated cost of goods sold by deducting the estimated gross margin from sales.
      • Subtract estimated cost of goods sold from cost of goods available for sale to obtain estimated ending inventory.