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Good Work in Teaching

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  1. Good Work in Teaching Hung Fan-sing The Chinese University of Hong Kong

  2. 1. The Background in HK • School funds mainly from the government • Follow rules & regulations • Conventional teaching • Mass-scale schooling

  3. 2. The Changing Climate • Demand for quality • diversity in quality • diversity in needs • social demand for quality

  4. 2. The Changing Climate • Decentralization & school autonomy • School-based management • Financial Decision-making • School Improvement • Accountability • Educational • Financial • Managerial

  5. 2. The Changing Climate • Financial stress • Cost-saving • Seeking funds other than public funds • School-age population • Sept. 04: S1 – 86,188; P1 – 60,976

  6. Population growth rate in HK (2001 Population Census, HK) Average Annual Growth Rate of Population 1971-1976 2.1 1976-1981 3.3 1981-1986 1.5 1986-1991 0.6 1991-1996 1.8 1996-2001 0.9

  7. Type of schools, 2001/02 (Education Statistics, 2003) Early Prim. Sec. childhood ed. ed. ed. Gov’t ------ 41 (.050) 37 (.075) Aided 276 (.260) 673 (.826) 367 (.740) DSS ------ 2 (.020) 28 (.056) ESF/Intn’l 38 (.036) 38 (.047) 22 (.044) Private 746 (.704) 61 (.075) 42 (.085) 1,060 (1.00) 815 (1.00) 496 (1.00)

  8. Educational attainment of population aged 15 or above in HK (Ed. Statistics, 2003) 1992 1997 2002 No schooling/ Kindergarten 12.4% 9.3% 7.0% 9-yr. basic ed. 42.8% 39.2% 37.8% sen. sec. ed. 32.9% 34.3% 34.7% post-sec. & sub-degree 6.4% 7.4% 7.6% degree/above 5.5% 9.8% 12.9%

  9. 3. Emerging challenges • Need for synchronization • Priority • Pace • Need for communication • Time & effort • Need for diversity • teaching, management, & public administration

  10. 4. Highlight of some research findings

  11. 4.1 Reallocation of school resources (Darling-Hammond, 1998) • less categorical specialist teachers, more regular classroom teachers • flexible student grouping: different class size for different subject taught • personalized teaching environment: multiage & multiyear classes (same class for 2-3 years)

  12. 4.1 Reallocation of school resources (Darling-Hammond, 1998) • lengthening the duration of each lesson => reducing the teacher-student workload • creating more time blocks for common planning during regular school time • funds spent on staff professional development rather than school restructuring

  13. 4.2 Good work: 3 basic questions (Gardner et al., 2001: 210-212) 1. Core values: “Why should my society entrust me with power and prestige?” 2. Exemplary beliefs & practice: “Which workers realize the calling best?” 3. Source of moral identity: “How do I feel about myself when I look in the mirror?”

  14. 4.2 Five levers for good work(Gardner et al., 2001: 212-219) • Creating new institution: “…to create a new institution, one designed to embody the values they cherish. ..” 2. Expanding the functions of existing institutions: “.. .he requested that 3 percent to 5 percent of the annual budget be put aside to address social and ethical issues from research on genetics…”

  15. 4.2 Five levers for good work(Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 3. Reconfiguring the membership of existing institutions: “…to diversify the workplace, and particularly to bring traditionally under-represented groups into leadership positions. Many believe that diversification….. can improve the quality and the appeal of products.”

  16. 4.2 Five levers for good work(Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 4. Reaffirming the values of existing institutions: “.. .New York Times… Bill Kovach…embodied the ‘intellectual dress code’ ….. ‘I care about each and every sentence in this paper and I care how we get them, and I have very clear views of how they are to be gotten.’….Kovach protected the members of his team: ‘Make the class, and I’ll back you,’ he told them….”

  17. 4.2 Five levers for good work (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 5. Taking personal stands: “When prominent, well-informed practitioners make moves that affirm the values, … and when they resist encroachment on their own legitimate prerogatives, others take heart…. On the other hand, if leading figures succumb to pressure….others are likely to become confused or disillusioned.”

  18. 4.2 Good work: Towardsauthentic alignment- maintaining an essential tension (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 219-220) “As long as we humans live on this planer, we can expect strains, conflicts, crises. The more we anticipate these trials, the more honestly we deal with them, the greater the likelihood that we will survive them. Therein liesauthentic alignment. We should besuspicious of superficial alignmentsthat mask looming storm clouds, and we should take preventive action to thwart those potentially massive misalignments that will be difficult to repair.”

  19. References • Dable, G. J. (1998). Saving Money in Non-profit Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Damon, W. (2001). Good work: when excellence and ethics meet. New York, NY: Basic Books. • Miles, Karen H. and Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1998. Rethinking the Allocation of Teaching Resources: Some Lessons From High-Performing Schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 20(1): 9-29.