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PETE 310. Review Lecture # 7 Three & Multicomponent Mixtures… Plus Lecture # 8 – Chapter 5. Ternary Diagrams: Review. C 1. C 1. C 1. Gas. Gas. Gas. 2-phase. 2-phase. Liquid. Liquid. nC 5. C 3. nC 5. C 3. nC 5. C 3. p=500 psia. p=14.7 psia. p=380 psia. C 1. C 1. C 1.

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Pete 310

PETE 310

Review Lecture # 7

Three & Multicomponent Mixtures…

Plus

Lecture # 8 – Chapter 5



Ternary diagrams review1

C1

C1

C1

Gas

Gas

Gas

2-phase

2-phase

Liquid

Liquid

nC5

C3

nC5

C3

nC5

C3

p=500 psia

p=14.7 psia

p=380 psia

C1

C1

C1

Gas

Gas

2-phase

2-phase

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

nC5

C3

nC5

nC5

p=2000 psia

p=2350 psia

p=1500 psia

Ternary Diagrams: Review

Pressure Effect

C3

C3


Ternary diagrams review2
Ternary Diagrams: Review

Dilution Lines


Ternary diagrams review3
Ternary Diagrams: Review

Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria - Tie (or equilibrium) lines

  • Tie lines join equilibrium conditions of the gas and liquid at a given pressure and temperature.

    • Dew point curve gives the gas composition.

    • Bubble point curve gives the liquid composition.


Ternary diagrams review4
Ternary Diagrams: Review

Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria - Tie (or equilibrium) lines

  • All mixtures whose overall composition (zi) is along a tie line have the SAME equilibrium gas (yi) and liquid composition (xi), but the relative amounts on a molar basis of gas and liquid (fv and fl) change linearly (0 – vapor at B.P., 1 – liquid at B.P.).



Uses of ternary diagrams
Uses of Ternary Diagrams

Representation of Multi-Component Phase Behavior with a Pseudoternary Diagram

  • Ternary diagrams may approximate phase behavior of multi-component mixtures by grouping them into 3 pseudocomponents

    • heavy (C7+)

    • intermediate (C2-C6)

    • light (C1, CO2 , N2- C1, CO2-C2, ...)


Uses of ternary diagrams1
Uses of Ternary Diagrams

Miscible Recovery Processes

Solvent2

Solvent1

oil


Exercise
Exercise

Find overall composition of mixture made with 100 moles oil "O" + 10 moles of mixture "A".

__________________________

________________________

_______________________

_____________________

___________________

_________________


Practice ternary diagrams

T=180F

P=200 psia

T=180F

P=14.7 psia

T=180F

P=600 psia

Pressure Effect

Pressure Effect

Pressure Effect

Pressure Effect

T=180F

P=400 psia

C1-C3-C10

O

O

O

O

Practice Ternary Diagrams

Pressure Effect


Practice ternary diagrams1

Pressure Effect

Pressure Effect

T=180F

P=4000 psia

T=180F

P=1000 psia

T=180F

P=2000 psia

T=180F

P=3000 psia

T=180F

P=1500 psia

O

O

O

O

O

Practice Ternary Diagrams

Pressure Effect


Practice ternary diagrams2

Temperature Effect

Temperature Effect

Temperature Effect

Temperature Effect

T=100F

P=2000 psia

T=200F

P=2000 psia

T=150F

P=2000 psia

T=300F

P=2000 psia

O

O

O

O

Practice Ternary Diagrams

Temperature Effect


Practice ternary diagrams3

Temperature Effect

Temperature Effect

Temperature Effect

T=400F

P=2000 psia

T=450F

P=2000 psia

T=350F

P=2000 psia

O

O

O

Practice Ternary Diagrams

Temperature Effect


Pressure temperature diagram for multicomponent systems

1-Phase

1-Phase

CP

Bubble-Curve

60%

0%

Reservoir Pressure

20%

2-Phase

Dew-Curve

Reservoir Temperature

Pressure-Temperature Diagram for Multicomponent Systems


Changes during production and injection

t

t

1

Production

Production

t

2

2

Gas

Gas

Pressure

Injection

Injection

t

t

3

3

Temperature

Changes During Production and Injection


Pete 3101

PETE 310

Lecture # 8: Five Reservoir Fluids (Chapter 5)


Pete 310 phase behavior
PETE 310 - Phase Behavior

Pressure vs. Temperature Diagrams

  • Used to visualize the fluids production path from the reservoir to the surface

  • To classify reservoir fluids

  • Visualize miscible processes


Pressure temperature diagram for multicomponent systems1

1-Phase

1-Phase

CP

Bubble-Curve

60%

0%

Reservoir Pressure

20%

2-Phase

Dew-Curve

Reservoir Temperature

Pressure-Temperature Diagram for Multicomponent Systems


Why do we need to classify reservoir fluids
Why do we need to classify Reservoir Fluids?

  • Determine fluid sampling

  • Determine types and sizes of surface equipment

  • Dictate depletion strategy

  • Determine selection of EOR method

  • Determine techniques to predict oil & gas reserves

  • Determine Material Balance calculations


Phase envelopes
Phase Envelopes

Cricondenbar

Bubblepoint

Curve

Critical

Fixed

Composition

Point

Dew Point Curve

Quality

75%

Lines

Pressure

50%

Cricondentherm

25%

Temperature


Classification of reservoirs based on phase diagram
Classification of Reservoirs based on Phase Diagram

  • Gas Reservoirs (Single Phase)

  • Gas Condensate Reservoirs (Dew-Point Reservoirs):

  • Undersaturated Solution-Gas Reservoirs (Bubble-Point Reservoirs):


Phase diagram of a dry gas reservoir
Phase Diagram of a Dry Gas Reservoir


Phase diagram of a wet gas reservoir
Phase Diagram of a Wet Gas Reservoir


Phase diagram of a retrograde gas reservoir
Phase Diagram of a Retrograde Gas Reservoir


Phase diagram of a volatile oil reservoir
Phase Diagram of a Volatile Oil Reservoir


Phase diagram of a black oil reservoir
Phase Diagram of a Black Oil Reservoir


Phase envelopes of different mixtures with different proportions of same hc components
Phase envelopes of different mixtures with different proportions of same HC components


Typical reservoir fluid compositions

Component proportions of same HC components

Black Oil

Volatile Oil

Gas Condensate

Wet Gas

Dry Gas

C

48.83

64.36

87.07

95.85

86.67

1

C

2.75

7.52

4.39

2.67

7.77

2

C

1.93

4.74

2.29

0.34

2.95

3

C

1.60

4.12

1.74

0.52

1.73

4

C

1.15

3.97

0.83

0.08

0.88

5

C

1.59

3.38

0.60

0.12

6

+

C

42.15

11.91

3.80

0.42

7

+

M

C

225

181

112

157

w

7

GOR

625

2000

18,200

105,000

-

o

Tank

API

34.3

50.1

60.8

54.7

-

Liquid

Greenish

Medium

Light

Water

-

Color

Black

Orange

Straw

White

Typical Reservoir Fluid Compositions


Pete 310

Compositional proportions of same HC components

Distribution

of

Reservoir

Fluids


Classification of reservoirs based on production and pvt data
Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data

GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS:

  • GOR between 70,000-100,000 SCF/STB

  • Density greater than 60 ºAPI

  • Light in color

  • C7+ composition < 12.5%


Classification of reservoirs based on production and pvt data1
Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data

VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIRS:

  • GOR between1,000-8,000 SCF/STB

  • Density between 45-60 ºAPI

  • Oil FVF greater than 2.00 (high shrinkage oils)

  • Light brown to green in color

  • C7+ composition > 12.5%


Pete 310

Classification of Reservoirs based on Production and PVT data

BLACK OIL RESERVOIRS:

  • GOR less than 1,000 SCF/STB

  • Density less than 45 ºAPI

  • Reservoir temperatures less than 250 ºF

  • Oil FVF less than 2.00 (low shrinkage oils)

  • Dark green to black in color

  • C7+ composition > 30%


Assignment
Assignment data

  • Read and make a summary of revised & newer criteria for classification of Reservoir Fluids from given paper by William D. McCain in JPT September 1994


Jpt paper study guide
JPT paper Study Guide data

  • What are the distinctive features of black oils in terms of

    • Initial GOR & GOR vs time

    • Initial API & API vs time

    • Compositions

    • Color


Jpt paper study guide1
JPT paper Study Guide data

  • What are the distinctive features of volatile oils in terms of

    • Initial GOR & GOR vs time

    • Initial API & API vs time

    • Compositions

    • Color


Jpt paper study guide2
JPT paper Study Guide data

  • What are the distinctive features of Condensate gasesin terms of

    • Initial GOR & GOR vs time

    • Initial API & API vs time

    • Compositions

    • Color


Jpt paper study guide3
JPT paper Study Guide data

  • What are the distinctive features of Dry gasesin terms of

    • Initial GOR & GOR vs time

    • Compositions