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PETE 310

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  1. PETE 310 Lectures # 12 -13 Properties of Dry Gases (pages 165-187)

  2. Phase Diagram of a Dry Gas Reservoir

  3. DRY GAS RESERVOIRS: • GOR > 100,000 SCF/STB • No liquid produced at surface • Mostly methane

  4. Standard Conditions • Unify volumes to common grounds for sales and regulatory purposes • T = 60 0F • P = 14.65 – 15.025 (State dependent) Then VM = RTsc/Psc

  5. Reservoir Engineering Properties of Dry Gases • Gas formation volume factor Bg Reservoir Conditions Standard Conditions

  6. Gas Formation Volume Factor [res bbl/SCF] or [ft3/SCF] Volume of an arbitrary amount of gas at reservoir T & P Volume of SAME amount at standard T & P

  7. Gas Formation Volume Factor [res bbl/SCF] or [ft3/SCF]

  8. Gas Formation Volume Factor

  9. Gas Formation Volume Factor [res bbl/SCF] or [ft3/SCF]

  10. Viscosity Definition & Units • Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid • This is called dynamic viscosity and has units of centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm • Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density, units are in centistokes = centipoise /g/cc

  11. Reservoir Engineering Properties of Dry Gases • Gas Viscosity 100oF 150oF 200oF Viscosity (cp) 200oF T increasing 150oF 100oF Pressure

  12. Viscosity of Ethane

  13. Viscosity of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

  14. Viscosity of Gas Mixtures See example 6-9

  15. Example

  16. Example • Read Molecular Weights table A-1 page 492 • Read Viscosities figure 6-7 • Apply formula…

  17. Still at atmospheric pressure! Gas Viscosity if Composition is Unknown

  18. Viscosity Corrections

  19. Viscosity of Gases at High Pressure m=ratio*mat

  20. Viscosity of Gases at High Pressure make sure you check the specific gravity range

  21. Accuracy for Viscosity Correlations? • At low Ppr and low gravities + 2% • Agreement is less accurate as specific gravity increases (fig. 6-12 has about 20% accuracy)

  22. Isothermal Compressibility • Definition • Derivative is evaluated at constant T = TA and specified pressure P = PA

  23. Isothermal Gas Compressibility TA TB P1 PA P2 V1 V2 Vave= (V1+V2)/2

  24. Isothermal Compressibility (Cg)

  25. Isothermal Compressibility • Using ideal gas equation

  26. Isothermal Compressibility • Using real gas equation

  27. Gas Compressibility