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Department of Architecture The University of Hong Kong. Building Design for Cold Climates. Sam C M Hui, Mar 2001. Contents. Climate Basics Cold Climates Response to Climate Human Factors. Climatic zones in the world. Climate Classifications. Cold climates. Temperate climates.

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department of architecture the university of hong kong

Department of ArchitectureThe University of Hong Kong

Building Design for

Cold Climates

Sam C M Hui, Mar 2001

contents
Contents
  • Climate Basics
  • Cold Climates
  • Response to Climate
  • Human Factors
slide4
Climate Classifications

Cold climates

Temperate climates

Hot-dry climates

Warm-humid climates

climate basics
Climate Basics
  • Cold climates
    • lack of heat (under-heating)
  • Temperature climates
    • seasonal variation between under-heating and over-heating
  • Hot-dry (arid) climates
    • overheating, dry
  • Warm-humid climates
    • overheating, humid
climate basics6
Climate Basics
  • Climatic elements
    • Temperature
    • Humidity
    • Air movement (wind speed and direction)
    • Precipitation (rain, hail, snow, dew)
    • Cloud cover
    • Sunshine duration
    • Solar radiation
cold climates
Cold Climates
  • Polar climates require special attention
  • Assume temperate climates
    • e.g. Canada, UK, New Zealand, Northern China
    • Severe winters, with snow and strong icy winds
  • Major considerations
    • Max. summer temperatures
    • Min. winter temperatures
    • Annual rainfall and humidity (dry or wet)
    • Sky conditions (cloudy or clear)
cold climates9
Cold Climates
  • Design principles
    • Minimal surface-to-volume ratio
    • Insulation of all external surfaces is very important
    • Small windows and openings, preferably double-glazed
    • Annual solar gains through windows are generally less that associated heat losses
    • Use of exposed internal thermal mass
    • Lightweight insulated structures are quick to heat up but also quick to cool,
    • Heavyweight structures are slow to heat up and cool down.
slide10
Cold climate (example)

- protection from wind, cold, snow drift and snow load

- design for minimum heat loss

slide11
Temperature climate (example)
  • protection from rain, snow, cold winds, moderate summer
  • heat & moderate winter cold
  • minimize heat loss, maximize isolation in winter; consider
  • summer shading and ventilation
slide13
How could I respond

to cold climate?

  • Main criteria:
  • built form
  • orientations
  • wall area
  • window area
  • thermal insulation
  • thermal mass

* Face House, Kyoto, Japan

response to climate
Response to Climate

Climate-responsive building (Tokyo Gas Earth Port, Japan)

response to climate16
Response to Climate
  • Building envelope - outer shell of a building that determines external thermal forces
    • exterior walls
    • exterior windows
    • roofs
    • underground slab and foundation
    • doors open to outdoor
response to climate17
Response to Climate
  • Major factors determining envelope heat flow:
    • temperature differential, T
    • area of exposed building surfaces, A
    • heat transmission properties, like U-value
    • thermal storage capacity
  • Effect of thermal mass
    • delay heat transfer and store heat
    • important for intermittently heated spaces
response to climate18
Response to Climate

Selection and design of window system

slide19
Effective use of solar energy

}

Active

solar

Passive

solar

{

human factors
Human Factors

Heat conduction

and convection

Solar heat

and radiation

Evaporative

heat loss

Wind chill

human factors22
Human Factors

Thermal comfort &

design conditions

ASHRAE comfort envelope

slide23
Local thermal discomfort

Asymmetric

thermal radiation

Draft

Vertical air

temp. diff.

Warm or

cold floor

slide24
Draft - undesired local

cooling of human body

caused by air movement

slide26
Vertical air temperature

difference - the temperature

gradient may cause local

warm discomfort at the head

and/or cold discomfort at the

feet

slide27
Warm or cold floor -

direct contact between the

feet and the floor causes

discomfort; flooring

material is important to

avoid this problem

references
References
  • Climatic Design of Buildings - An Overview
    • http://arch.hku.hk/~cmhui/teach/65156-7.htm
  • Climatic Design
    • http://fridge.arch.uwa.edu.au/topics/thermal/climate/design.html
  • Climate Classification
    • http://fridge.arch.uwa.edu.au/topics/thermal/climate/classification.html
references29
References
  • Hutcheon, N. B. and Handegord, G. O.P., 1983. Building Science for a Cold Climate, National Research Council of Canada, Toronto. [690.0911 H9]
  • Lstiburek, J. W., 2000. Builder’s Guide to Cold Climates: Details for Design and Construction, Taunton Press, Newtown, Conn. [693.8 L925 b]
  • Markus, T. A. and Morris, E. N., 1980. Buildings, Climate, and Energy, Pitman, London. [697 M34]
  • Watson, D. and Lab, K., 1983. Climatic Design: Energy-efficient Building Principles and Practices, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983. [697.9 W3]
slide30
Further questions:

Web: http://arch.hku.hk/research/BEER

Email: [email protected]

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