department of architecture the university of hong kong
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Department of Architecture The University of Hong Kong

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Department of Architecture The University of Hong Kong - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Department of Architecture The University of Hong Kong. Building Design for Cold Climates. Sam C M Hui, Mar 2001. Contents. Climate Basics Cold Climates Response to Climate Human Factors. Climatic zones in the world. Climate Classifications. Cold climates. Temperate climates.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Department of Architecture The University of Hong Kong' - garan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
department of architecture the university of hong kong

Department of ArchitectureThe University of Hong Kong

Building Design for

Cold Climates

Sam C M Hui, Mar 2001

  • Climate Basics
  • Cold Climates
  • Response to Climate
  • Human Factors
Climate Classifications

Cold climates

Temperate climates

Hot-dry climates

Warm-humid climates

climate basics
Climate Basics
  • Cold climates
    • lack of heat (under-heating)
  • Temperature climates
    • seasonal variation between under-heating and over-heating
  • Hot-dry (arid) climates
    • overheating, dry
  • Warm-humid climates
    • overheating, humid
climate basics6
Climate Basics
  • Climatic elements
    • Temperature
    • Humidity
    • Air movement (wind speed and direction)
    • Precipitation (rain, hail, snow, dew)
    • Cloud cover
    • Sunshine duration
    • Solar radiation
cold climates
Cold Climates
  • Polar climates require special attention
  • Assume temperate climates
    • e.g. Canada, UK, New Zealand, Northern China
    • Severe winters, with snow and strong icy winds
  • Major considerations
    • Max. summer temperatures
    • Min. winter temperatures
    • Annual rainfall and humidity (dry or wet)
    • Sky conditions (cloudy or clear)
cold climates9
Cold Climates
  • Design principles
    • Minimal surface-to-volume ratio
    • Insulation of all external surfaces is very important
    • Small windows and openings, preferably double-glazed
    • Annual solar gains through windows are generally less that associated heat losses
    • Use of exposed internal thermal mass
    • Lightweight insulated structures are quick to heat up but also quick to cool,
    • Heavyweight structures are slow to heat up and cool down.
Cold climate (example)

- protection from wind, cold, snow drift and snow load

- design for minimum heat loss

Temperature climate (example)
  • protection from rain, snow, cold winds, moderate summer
  • heat & moderate winter cold
  • minimize heat loss, maximize isolation in winter; consider
  • summer shading and ventilation
How could I respond

to cold climate?

  • Main criteria:
  • built form
  • orientations
  • wall area
  • window area
  • thermal insulation
  • thermal mass

* Face House, Kyoto, Japan

response to climate
Response to Climate

Climate-responsive building (Tokyo Gas Earth Port, Japan)

response to climate16
Response to Climate
  • Building envelope - outer shell of a building that determines external thermal forces
    • exterior walls
    • exterior windows
    • roofs
    • underground slab and foundation
    • doors open to outdoor
response to climate17
Response to Climate
  • Major factors determining envelope heat flow:
    • temperature differential, T
    • area of exposed building surfaces, A
    • heat transmission properties, like U-value
    • thermal storage capacity
  • Effect of thermal mass
    • delay heat transfer and store heat
    • important for intermittently heated spaces
response to climate18
Response to Climate

Selection and design of window system

Effective use of solar energy







human factors
Human Factors

Heat conduction

and convection

Solar heat

and radiation


heat loss

Wind chill

human factors22
Human Factors

Thermal comfort &

design conditions

ASHRAE comfort envelope

Local thermal discomfort


thermal radiation


Vertical air

temp. diff.

Warm or

cold floor

Draft - undesired local

cooling of human body

caused by air movement

Vertical air temperature

difference - the temperature

gradient may cause local

warm discomfort at the head

and/or cold discomfort at the


Warm or cold floor -

direct contact between the

feet and the floor causes

discomfort; flooring

material is important to

avoid this problem

  • Climatic Design of Buildings - An Overview
  • Climatic Design
  • Climate Classification
  • Hutcheon, N. B. and Handegord, G. O.P., 1983. Building Science for a Cold Climate, National Research Council of Canada, Toronto. [690.0911 H9]
  • Lstiburek, J. W., 2000. Builder’s Guide to Cold Climates: Details for Design and Construction, Taunton Press, Newtown, Conn. [693.8 L925 b]
  • Markus, T. A. and Morris, E. N., 1980. Buildings, Climate, and Energy, Pitman, London. [697 M34]
  • Watson, D. and Lab, K., 1983. Climatic Design: Energy-efficient Building Principles and Practices, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983. [697.9 W3]
Further questions:


Email: [email protected]