Chapter 8 Section 1Science and Urban Life By: Carly Nielsen
Technology and City Life • Engineering innovations, like the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883. • Cities expanded upward and outward. • In 1870 only 25 cities had a population of 50,000 or more by 1890 there were 58 cities with that big of population. • Do to industrial jobs 4 out of 10 Americans moved to a city.
Skyscrapers • Architects were able to design taller buildings because of two factors: • Elevators • Internal steel skeletons were able bear the weight of a bigger building. • Architects Louis Sullivan designed one of the first skyscraper that was 10 stories high, Wainwright Building. • Skyscraper were the best way to use limited and expensive space. • Daniel Burnham designed the Flatiron Building (285ft tall) and other buildings as well.
Skyscrapers Flatiron Building Wainwright Building
Electric Transit • In the 1870’s and 1880’s streetcar lines were powered by underground cables. • Richmond, Virginia, became the first city in America to make the urban transits run on electricity. • By the twentieth century electric streetcar (trolley cars) outlined most of the cities. • Railroads aloud people to live in the suburbs and still commute to the city. • Some larger cities elevated streetcars and built subways.
Streetcars or Trolleys Horse Drawn Streetcars Electronic Streetcars
Engineering and Urban Planning • Brooklyn Bridge was built to allow people the leisure to cross the bridge on a regular day. • The bridge connected Brooklyn to the Island of Manhattan in New York City. • City Planners sought to design recreational areas. • Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux helped draw the plan for “Greensward” which is central park in New York City today.
City Planning • Chicago’s population was 30,000 in 1850 by 1870 it had grown to a population of 300,000. • A local architect, Daniel Burnham, was intrigued by the reconstruction of the city. • The swampy area near Lake Michigan was transformed into a beautiful city. • Statues, the first Ferris wheel, a lagoon were some of the things visitors saw when the came to Chicago.
Chicago’s Attractions First Ferris Wheel
New Technologies • The advancement in communication brought the city closer together. • Railroads networks stretched across the nation. • Advances in printing. • Aviation • Photography
Revolution in Printing • In 1890 the literacy rate had risen to nearly 90%. • There was a demand for more books, magazines, and newspapers. • Advances in Print aided this demand. • Mills began to produce lots of cheap paper made from wood pulp. • The printers could print on both sides on a continuous roll of paper. • This made magazines and newspapers more affordable.
Printers Inkjet printer came out in 1988.
Airplanes • Orville and Wilber Wright were bicycle manufacturers from Dayton, Ohio. • They experimented with a new engine for an aircraft. • They first built a glider. • Then they built a four cylinder internal combustion engine. • Their first successful flight was December 17th, 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. • The first flight covered 120 feet and lasted 12 second.
Aviation • Orville and Wilber Wright signed a contract for production of the airplane with the U.S. Army. • By 1920 the U.S. government was convinced of the potential to fly so they established the first transcontinental airmail service.
Photography • Photography was only professional activity before 1880. • George Eastman developed a way where photographers didn’t have to take their dark room with them. • Instead they could use flexible film that they could send to a studio for processing. • He later invented the Kodak Camera which was $25 with a 100-picture roll. • At this point millions of Americans started to become amateur photographers.
Photojournalism • This Camera provided the opportunity for reporters to capture pictures and publish them in newspapers. • For example they captured the first successful flight of the Wright brothers.
Sources: • The Americans • http://www.wright-house.com/wright-brothers/Wrights.html • http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventors/ss/George_Eastman.htm • http://www.trolleystop.com/trolleycar.htm