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The Microworld. Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge. True or False: Bacillus cereus is commonly associated with cereal crops, such as rice

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Apply your knowledge test your food safety knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge

  • True or False:Bacillus cereus is commonly associated with cereal crops, such as rice

    2.True or False: A foodborne intoxication results when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness

    3.True or False: Cooking food to the required minimum internal temperature can help avoid listeriosis

    4.True or False: A person with shigellosis may experience bloody diarrhea

    5.True or False:Highly acidic food typically does not support the growth of foodborne microorganisms

2-2


Microbial contaminants
Microbial Contaminants

  • Microorganism

    • Small, living organism

  • Pathogen

    • Illness-causing microorganism

  • Toxin

    • Poison


Microbial contaminants1
Microbial Contaminants

  • Microorganisms That Can Contaminate Food and Cause Foodborne Illness

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasites

Fungi


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

A

T

F

Temperature

Food

Acidity

T

M

O

Moisture

Time

Oxygen


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom1
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Food

    • Foodborne microorganisms require nutrients to grow. Specifically carbohydrates and proteins

    • These are found in potentially hazardous food including:

      • Meat

      • Poultry

      • Dairy products

      • Eggs

F

Food


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom2
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Acidity

    • Foodborne microorganisms grow best in food that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH (7.5 to 4.6)

    • Most food falls into this range

A

Acidity

pH Scale

Acidic

7.5–4.6

ideal for

bacterial

growth

Neutral

Alkaline


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom3
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Temperature

    • Foodborne microorganisms grow well at temperatures between 41˚F and 135˚F (5˚C and 57˚C)

T

Temperature

135°F

(57°C)

The Temperature Danger Zone

41°F

(5°C)


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom4
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Time

    • Foodborne microorganisms need sufficient time to grow

    • 4 hours or more in TDZ=growth high enough to cause illness

T

Time


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom5
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Oxygen

    • Some foodborne microorganisms require oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen is absent

O

Oxygen


What microorganisms need to grow fat tom6
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

  • Moisture

    • Most foodborne microorganisms require moisture to grow

    • The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called water activity (aw)

    • Potentially hazardous food typically has an aw of .85 or higher

M

Moisture


Controlling the growth of microorganisms
Controlling the Growth of Microorganisms

  • The two conditions you can control:

    • Temperature

      • Refrigerate or freeze food properly

      • Cook food properly

    • Time

      • Minimize time food spends in the temperature danger zone (TDZ)


Apply your knowledge what i need to grow
Apply Your Knowledge: What I Need to Grow!

  • Which conditions typically support the growth of microorganisms?

    Food that is high in fat

    Food that contains protein

    pH of 9.0

    Temperature of 155F (68C) or higher

    Dry environment

1

2

3

4

5

2-13


Classifying foodborne illness
Classifying Foodborne Illness

  • Foodborne Infections

    • Result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness

  • Foodborne Intoxications

    • Result when a person eats food containing toxins that cause illness

  • Foodborne Toxin-Mediated Infections

    • Result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then produce illness-causing toxins in the intestines


Bacteria that cause foodborne illness
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Basic Characteristics

    • Living, single-celled organism

    • Can be carried by food, water, soil, animals, humans, or insects

    • Can reproduce very rapidly under favorable conditions


Bacteria that cause foodborne illness1
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Basic Characteristics: continued

    • Some survive freezing

    • Some change into a different form called sporesto protect themselves

    • Some spoil food; others cause illness

    • Some produce toxins that cause illness


Spores
Spores

  • Certain bacteria can change into a different form, called spores, to protect themselves

  • Spores

    • Form when nutrients are not available

    • Are commonly found in soil and contaminate food grown there

    • Can contaminate meat, poultry, fish, and other food exposed to soil or dust


Spores1
Spores

  • Spores

    • Can resist heat, allowing them to survive cooking temperatures

    • Can revert back to a form capable of growth when:

      • Food is not stored at the proper temperature

      • Food is not held or cooled properly


Major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria

  • Infections

    • Campylobacteriosis

    • Salmonellosis

    • Shigellosis

    • Listeriosis

    • Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis

    • Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia/Gastroenteritis


Infection campylobacteriosis
Infection: Campylobacteriosis

Illness:CampylobacteriosisBacteria: Campylobacterjejuni

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Diarrhea (may be bloody)

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Fever

  • Headache

  • Poultry

  • Water contaminated with the bacteria

Diarrhea

Abdominal Cramps

Fever

Headache


Preventing campylobacteriosis
Preventing Campylobacteriosis

  • To reduce the bacteria in food:

    • Cook food, particularly poultry, to required minimum internal temperatures

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:

    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw poultry and ready-to-eat food.


Infection salmonellosis
Infection: Salmonellosis

Illness:SalmonellosisBacteria: Salmonella spp.

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Vomiting

  • Fever

  • Poultry and eggs

  • Dairy products

  • Beef


Preventing salmonellosis
Preventing Salmonellosis

  • To reduce the bacteria in food:

    • Cook raw beef, poultry, and eggs to required minimum internal temperatures.

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:

    • Minimize cross-contamination between raw meat and poultry and ready-to-eat food.

    • Exclude foodhandlers diagnosed with salmonellosis.


Infection shigellosis
Infection: Shigellosis

Illness:ShigellosisBacteria: Shigella spp.

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Food easily contaminated by hands

  • Food in contact with contaminated water (i.e., produce)

  • Bloody diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain and cramps

  • Fever (occasionally)


Preventing shigellosis
Preventing Shigellosis

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:

    • Exclude foodhandlers if they:

      • Have diarrhea

      • Have been diagnosed with shigellosis

    • Wash hands when necessary

    • Control flies inside and outside the establishment


Infection listeriosis
Infection: Listeriosis

Illness:ListeriosisBacteria: Listeria monocytogenes

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw meat

  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products

  • Ready-to-eat food including:

    • Deli meats

    • Hot dogs

    • Soft cheese

  • Pregnant women

    • Spontaneous abortion of the fetus

  • Newborns

    • Sepsis

    • Pneumonia

    • Meningitis


Preventing listeriosis
Preventing Listeriosis

  • It is critical to:

    • Discard product that has passed its use-by or expiration date

    • Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products

  • To reduce the bacteria in food:

    • Cook raw meat to required minimum internal temperatures

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:

    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw or undercooked and ready-to-eat food


Infection vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis
Infection: Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Vibrio parahaemolyticus GastroenteritisBacteria: Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters

  • Diarrhea and abdominal cramps

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Low grade fever and chills


Preventing vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis
Preventing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis

  • Most Important Prevention Measures

    • Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers

    • Cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperature


Infection vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia
Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia

Illness:Vibrio vulnificus Primary SepticemiaBacteria: Vibro vulnificus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters

(People with liver disease and diabetes)

  • Fever and chills

  • Nausea

  • Skin lesions

  • Diarrhea and vomiting possible


Infection vibrio vulnificus gastroenteritis
Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Vibrio vulnificus GastroenteritisBacteria: Vibrio vulnificus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters

(Otherwise healthy people)

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps


Preventing vibrio vulnificus septicemia gastroenteritis
Preventing Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia/Gastroenteritis

  • Most Important Prevention Measures

    • Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers.

    • Cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperature.

    • Inform people at risk to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked oysters


Major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria1
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria

  • Intoxications

    • Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

    • Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis

    • Botulism


Intoxication bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Bacillus cereus GastroenteritisBacteria: Bacillus cereus

(Diarrheal Toxin)

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Watery diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps and pain

  • Vomiting is absent

  • Cooked corn

  • Cooked potatoes

  • Cooked vegetables

  • Meat products


Intoxication bacillus cereus gastroenteritis1
Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Bacillus cereus GastroenteritisBacteria: Bacillus cereus

(Emetic Toxin)

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Cooked rice dishes including:

    • Fried rice

    • Rice pudding


Preventing bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Preventing Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

  • To reduce the bacteria in food:

    • Cook food to required minimum internal temperatures

  • To prevent the growth of the bacteria:

    • Hold food at the proper temperature

    • Cool food properly


Intoxication staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Intoxication: StaphylococcalGastroenteritis

Illness:Staphylococcal GastroenteritisBacteria: Staphylococcus aureus

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting and retching

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Salads containing potentially hazardous food:

    • Egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni

  • Deli meats


Preventing staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Preventing Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria to food:

    • Wash hands after touching the body

    • Cover cuts on hands and arms

    • Restrict foodhandlers with infected cuts on hands and arms

  • To prevent the growth of the bacteria in food:

    • Minimize the time food spends in the TDZ

      • Cook, hold, and cool food properly


Intoxication botulism
Intoxication: Botulism

Illness:BotulismBacteria: Clostridium botulinum

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Improperly canned food

  • ROP food

  • Temperature abused vegetables like:

    • Baked potatoes

    • Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures

Initially:

  • Nausea and Vomiting

    Later:

  • Weakness

  • Double vision

  • Difficulty speaking and swallowing


Preventing botulism
Preventing Botulism

  • Most Important Prevention Measures:

    • Hold, cool, and reheat food properly

    • Inspect canned food for damage


Major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria2
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria

  • Toxin-Mediated Infections:

    • Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis

    • Hemorrhagic Colitis


Toxin mediated infection clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
Toxin-Mediated Infection: Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis

Illness:Clostridium perfringens GastroenteritisBacteria: Clostridium perfringens

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Meat

  • Poultry

  • Meat and poultry dishes:

    • Stews

    • Gravies

  • Diarrhea

  • Severe abdominal pain

  • Fever and vomiting are absent


Preventing clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
Preventing Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis

  • To prevent growth of the bacteria (especially in meat dishes):

    • Cool and reheat food properly

    • Hold food at the proper temperature


Toxin mediated infection hemorrhagic colitis
Toxin-Mediated Infection:Hemorrhagic Colitis

Illness:Hemorrhagic ColitisBacteria: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ground beef (raw and undercooked)

  • Contaminated produce

  • Diarrhea (eventually becomes bloody)

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Severe cases can result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)


Preventing hemorrhagic colitis
Preventing Hemorrhagic Colitis

  • To reduce the bacteria in food:

    • Cook food, particularly ground beef, to required minimum internal temperatures

  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria to food:

    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw meat and ready-to-eat food

    • Exclude employees from the establishment if:

      • They have diarrhea

      • They have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis


Basic characteristics of viruses
Basic Characteristics of Viruses

  • Viruses

    • Some may survive freezing

    • Can be transmitted from:

      • Person to person

      • People to food

      • People to food-contact surfaces

    • Usually contaminate food through a foodhandler’s improper hygiene

    • Can contaminate both food and water supplies


Major foodborne illnesses caused by viruses
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Viruses

  • Viral Foodborne Illnesses

    • Hepatitis A

    • Norovirus Gastroenteritis


Infection hepatitis a
Infection: Hepatitis A

Illness:Hepatitis AVirus: Hepatitis A

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ready-to-eat food including:

    • Deli meats

    • Produce

    • Salads

  • Raw and partially cooked shellfish

Initially:

  • Fever (mild)

  • General weakness

  • Nausea

  • Abdominal pain

    Later:

  • Jaundice


Preventing hepatitis a
Preventing Hepatitis A

  • To prevent the transfer of the virus to food:

    • Wash hands properly

    • Exclude employees who have jaundice or hepatitis A

    • Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food

  • Other prevention measures:

    • Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers

    • Inform high-risk populations to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked shellfish


Infection norovirus gastroenteritis
Infection: Norovirus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Norovirus GastroenteritisVirus: Norovirus

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ready-to-eat food

  • Shellfish contaminated by sewage

  • Vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Nausea

  • Abdominal cramps


Preventing norovirus gastroenteritis
Preventing Norovirus Gastroenteritis

  • To prevent the transfer of the virus to food:

    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea and vomiting

    • Exclude employees who have been diagnosed with Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    • Wash hands properly

  • Other prevention measures:

    • Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers


Basic characteristics of parasites
Basic Characteristics of Parasites

  • Parasites

    • Are living organisms that need a host to survive

    • Are small, often microscopic

    • Infect many animals and can be transmitted to humans

    • Are a hazard to food and water


Major foodborne illnesses caused by parasites
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Parasites

  • Parasitic Foodborne Illnesses

    • Anisakiasis

    • Cyclosporiasis

    • Cryptosporidiosis

    • Giardiasis


Infection anisakiasis
Infection: Anisakiasis

Illness:AnisakiasisParasite: Anisakis simplex

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Non-invasive

  • Tingling in throat

  • Coughing up worms

    Invasive

  • Stomach pain

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Diarrhea

Raw and undercooked:

  • Herring

  • Cod

  • Halibut

  • Mackerel

  • Pacific salmon


Preventing anisakiasis
Preventing Anisakiasis

  • Most Important Prevention Measures

    • Cook fish to required minimum internal temperatures

    • Purchase fish from approved, reputable suppliers

  • If fish will be served raw or undercooked:

    • Purchase sushi-grade fish

    • Ensure sushi-grade fish has been frozen properly by the supplier


Infection cyclosporiasis
Infection: Cyclosporiasis

Illness:CyclosporiasisParasite: Cyclospora cayetanensis

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Nausea (mild to severe)

  • Abdominal cramping

  • Mild fever

  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation

  • Produce irrigated or washed with water containing the parasite


Preventing cyclosporiasis
Preventing Cyclosporiasis

  • It is critical to:

    • Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers

  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:

    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea

    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination


Infection cryptosporidiosis
Infection: Cryptosporidiosis

Illness:CryptosporidiosisParasite: Cryptosporidiumparvum

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Untreated or improperly treated water

  • Contaminated produce

  • Watery diarrhea

  • Stomach cramps

  • Nausea

  • Weight loss


Preventing cryptosporidiosis
Preventing Cryptosporidiosis

  • It is critical to:

    • Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers

    • Use properly treated water

  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:

    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea

    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination


Infection giardiasis
Infection: Giardiasis

Illness:GiardiasisParasite: Giardiaduodenalis

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Initially:

  • Fever

    Later:

  • Loose stools

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Nausea

  • Improperly treated water


Preventing giardiasis
Preventing Giardiasis

  • Most Important Prevention Measure

    • Use properly treated water

  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:

    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea

    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination


Fungi
Fungi

  • Fungi

    • Commonly cause food spoilage and sometimes illness

Fungi

Molds Yeasts


Basic characteristics of mold
Basic Characteristics of Mold

  • Mold

    • Spoils food and sometimes causes illness

    • Grows well in acidic food with low water activity

    • Is not destroyed by freezing

    • Can produce toxins such as aflatoxins


Basic characteristics of yeast
Basic Characteristics of Yeast

  • Yeast

    • Can spoil food rapidly

    • May produce a smell or taste of alcohol as it spoils food

    • May appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble