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Water, Part 2. Wastewater Treatment Primary Chapter: 11 Supplemental Chapters: 8, 9. Activity. What’s the problem with direct discharge of untreated wastewater? Write your ideas. Share with a partner. Share with the class. Treatment Processes.

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Water part 2

Water, Part 2

Wastewater Treatment

Primary Chapter: 11

Supplemental Chapters: 8, 9


Activity
Activity

What’s the problem with direct discharge of untreated wastewater?

Write your ideas.

Share with a partner.

Share with the class.


Treatment processes
Treatment Processes

Treatment process = f(amount, type/source)

Discharge limits = f(type/source, discharge location, time of year)



Types of wastewater section 11 1 1
Types of Wastewater(Section 11.1.1)

From where does it all come?



Characteristics of ww section 11 1 2
Characteristics of WW(Section 11.1.2)


Activity1
Activity

Why is it important to obtain local data on wastewater composition and flow rates rather than using typical data when designing a new or an expansion to a treatment plant?

Write your ideas.

Share with a partner.

Share with the class.


Regulations sections 9 3 2 and 9 3 3
Regulations(Sections 9.3.2 and 9.3.3)

What’s the primary law for WWT?


Activity2
Activity

Who must obtain an NPDES permit?

  • Manufacturers

  • Point source dischargers

  • Farmers

  • Septic tank owners

  • Municipalities



Degrees of treatment example
Degrees of Treatment - Example

Raw Sewage

Bar Rack

Preliminary Treatment

Grit Chamber

Equalization Basin

Primary Treatment

Pump

Solids Handling

Primary Clarifier

Biological Treatment

Secondary Treatment

Secondary Clarifier

Advancedor Tertiary Treatment

Disinfection

ReceivingBody





Preliminary treatment section 11 2 1
Preliminary Treatment (Section 11.2.1)

Screens

Grit Chamber

Bar Racks

Comminutors (Grinders)


Primary treatment section 11 2 2
Primary Treatment(Section 11.2.2)


Secondary treatment section 11 3
Secondary Treatment(Section 11.3)


Oxygen demand
Oxygen Demand

Section 9.1.2


Oxygen demand1
Oxygen Demand

Amount of oxygen required to oxidize a waste

Methods

Theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD)

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)


Theoretical oxygen demand
Theoretical Oxygen Demand

Total ThOD = C-ThOD + N-ThOD

C-ThOD = stoichiometric amount of O2 required to convert an organic substance to CO2, H2O, and NH3

N-ThOD = stoichiometric amount of O2 required to convert NH3 and organic N to NO3-


Example 1
Example 1

What is the total ThOD to oxidize completely 25 mg/L of ethanol (CH3CH2OH)?

CH3CH2OH + a O2 b CO2 + c H2O



Example 2
Example 2

What is the ThOD to oxidize completely 25 mg/L of serine (CH2OHCHNH2COOH)?

CH2OHCHNH2COOH + a O2 b CO2 + c H2O + d NH3

NH3 + a O2 b HNO3 + c H2O



Lab unseeded bod
Lab: Unseeded BOD

BODt = BOD at t days (mg/L)

DOi = initial dissolved oxygen (mg/L)

DOf = final dissolved oxygen (mg/L)

Vs= sample volume (mL)

Vb = bottle volume (mL) = 300 mL

DF = dilution factor = Vb/Vs


Lab seeded bod
Lab: Seeded BOD

Bi = initial DO of blank (mg/L)

Bf = final DO of blank (mg/L)


In class activity
In-Class Activity

10 mL of a wastewater sample are placed in a 300-mL BOD bottle with unseeded nutrient broth. The initial DO of the sample is 8.5 mg/L. The DO is 3 mg/L after 5 days. What is the 5-day BOD?

A 17oC sample is initially saturated with oxygen. Saturated seeded dilution water is used to obtain a 1:25 dilution. The final DO of the seeded dilution water is 8.2 mg/L while the final DO of the diluted sample is 2.8 mg/L. What is the 5-day BOD?


In class activity1
In-Class Activity

You received the results of a BOD test of the influent to a municipal WWTP run with 300-mL bottles. The initial DOs of the samples and seeded dilution water were at saturation (9.07 mg/L). All samples were run at a dilution factor of 40:1. The 5-day DOs are shown in the table below. The client is on the phone with your boss wanting to know why he hasn’t gotten a report yet. Justify why you threw out this data and made the lab redo the test.

1B = blank (seeded dilution water), S = sample with seeded dilution water


Rate of bod removal
Rate of BOD Removal

Relate BOD exerted (BODt or Lt) to total, or ultimate, BOD (BODu or L)

Assume that the BOD reduction rate (dC/dt) is proportional to the BOD remaining (C):


Rate of bod removal cont
Rate of BOD Removal cont.

Integration yields:

y = BOD exerted in t days = BODt

L = ultimate BOD = BODu

k1 = BOD degradation rate constant = deoxygenation constant



In class activity continued
In-Class Activity continued

10 mL of a wastewater sample are placed in a 300-mL BOD bottle. The initial DO of the sample is 8.5 mg/L. The DO is 3 mg/L after 5 days. What is the 5-day BOD? 165 mg/L

What is the 3-day BOD if the reaction rate constant is 0.23/d?



Secondary treatment section 11 31
Secondary Treatment(Section 11.3)


Activated sludge aeration basin sections 11 3 2 11 3 4
Activated Sludge: Aeration Basin (Sections 11.3.2 - 11.3.4)


Aeration basin design
Aeration Basin Design

  • Kinetics

  • Mean cell residence time & hydraulic detention time


Kinetics logistic growth

max

 (d-1)

max/2

Ks

S (mg/L)

Kinetics: Logistic Growth


Aeration basin design1
Aeration Basin Design

Mean cell residence time & hydraulic detention time


Mcrt from a reactor without recycle
MCRT from a Reactor without Recycle

V, S, X

Q, So, Xo

Q, S, X


Wasting from recycle line
Wasting from Recycle Line

Qe = Q-Qw, S, Xc

Q, So, Xo

V, S, X

Vc

Qr , S, Xr

Qw , S, Xr


Example
Example

A conventional WWTP receives 2 MGD with an average BOD of 165 mg/L to the aeration basin. The aeration basin is 100,000 ft3. The MLSS is 2,800 mg/L and the effluent SS is 25 mg/L. The WAS is 38,000 gpd from the recycle line. The SS of the recycle flow is 9,000 mg/L. What is the mean cell residence time?


General equation for mean cell residence time
General Equation forMean Cell Residence Time


Secondary clarifier section 11 3 5
Secondary Clarifier(Section 11.3.5)







Trickling filters section 11 3 1
Trickling Filters (Section 11.3.1)



Disinfection
DISINFECTION

Section 11.3.6

UV Generator and Lamps

Chlorine Contact Basin


Tertiary treatment
TERTIARY TREATMENT

Section 11.4


Wetlands section 11 4 3
Wetlands (Section 11.4.3)






Discharge to a stream section 8 2 3
Discharge to a Stream(Section 8.2.3)

Effects:

  • Nitrogen species

  • Biodiversity

  • DO



Streeter phelps model
Streeter-Phelps Model

where D = oxygen deficit

= DOsat - DOactual


Critical point
Critical Point

Obtain from dD/dt = 0:


Evaluation of model
Evaluation of Model

  • Very simple to use

  • But not like nature

    • Assumes steady state

    • Assumes a single discharge

    • Assumes no upstream dispersion

    • Assumes complete mixing

    • Assumes all the BOD is soluble

    • Doesn’t include scouring

    • Doesn’t include DO from algae


Discharge to a lake section 8 2 2
Discharge to a Lake(Section 8.2.2)

Cougar Lake


Effect on a lake
Effect on a Lake

Cougar Lake


Sludge management

Section 11.5

Sludge Management


Purpose
Purpose

  • Reduce/inactivate pathogens

  • Increase solids content

  • Reduce odor & putrescence



Sludge disposal
Sludge Disposal

How can we get rid of the sludge???

And how do we choose which option is best?






Absorption fields
Absorption Fields

Shallow Trench

Drop Box


Septic tank with sand filter
Septic Tank with Sand Filter

Single Pass (Intermittent)

Recirculating


Mound system
Mound System

Distribution Lateral

Topsoil and Vegetation Cover

Marsh Hay

Sand Fill

Bed of Coarse Aggregate (0.5 - 2”)

Pipe from Pump

(pressure distribution line)

Plowed Layer(Ground Surface)