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Road Pricing in the Netherlands Workshop on Road User Charging Systems Warsaw, June 11 and 12, 2007 Ronald Keus and Jan Vis Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat. Contents. History of Pricing Policy in the Netherlands Current pricing policy in the Netherlands

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Road Pricing in the Netherlands

Workshop on Road User Charging Systems

Warsaw, June 11 and 12, 2007

Ronald Keus and Jan Vis

Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat

  • History of Pricing Policy in the Netherlands
  • Current pricing policy in the Netherlands
  • Scope of the Kilometre Charge (KMP)
  • Cabinet’s decision

The Netherlands

  • Population: 16.2 million
  • 8+ million vehicles
  • 2400 km motorways
  • >134.000 km roads in total
  • >100 billion km made on yearly basis
  • Daily congestion problems, in particular related to the economic centre (Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague and Rotterdam)
  • Total 6.8 billions of vehicle taxes (BPM and MRB taxes) on a yearly base (including provincial taxes)
  • 350 border crossings
previous dutch ruc attempts
Previous Dutch RUC attempts
  • 1988: Rekening Rijden I
  • 1992: Spitsvignet
  • 1994: Rekening rijden II
  • 1999: Spitstarief + investments package
  • 2001: Kilometer Charge

Untill 2005 without success.

Failed because of insufficient political support

lessons learned
Lessons learned
  • From our own history:
    • Political and public acceptance is the biggest problem, and not the technique
    • Show the (tax)payer where the revenues are spent on
    • Show the (tax)payer that the system is fair:
      • To pay for use of the road
      • To pay for pollution
  • From experiences abroad:
    • ‘Keep it simple’
    • ‘start at a small scale, but start at least’
    • Pricing policy requires politicians with courage
recent history the platform and their advice 2005
Recent historyThe Platform and their advice (2005)
  • A breakthrough was needed
  • Introduction of an advisory Platform
  • The main social and business society where involved
    • E.g. motorists association, environmental groups, representatives of employers and employees, regional governments, etc.
  • Chairman was mr Nouwen (1999 former opponent)
  • The Platform came with their advice in May 2005:
    • Several concepts of charging discussed
    • Selected option: price per kilometre (KMP) for all vehicles on all roads. Based on time, location and environmental aspects. Feasible by 2012-2014.
recent history advice of the platform
Recent historyAdvice of the Platform

Effects of KMP, differentiated on the basis of time, place and environmental characteristics

  • Calculations based on average rate of 3,4 eurocent per kilometre, and a congestion rate of 11 eurocent per kilometre
road pricing in the mobility plan september 2005
Roadpricing in the Mobility Plan (September 2005)
  • Advice of Platform leading principle in the Mobility Plan
    • It‘s effective, fair and transparent
    • And contributes to accessibility and environment quality
  • Strategic considerations:
    • To preserve the public support: stay close to the opinion of the Platform
    • It presents a step-by-step approach
    • A quick start with famous traffic black spots or bottlenecks
    • And step by step towards full-scale roadpricing (kilometre price)
current pricing policy
Current pricing policy
  • Current Coalition Agreement
  • Objectives and scope of the KMP
  • Tentative schedule KMP
  • Main additional requirements
  • Market consultation
  • Joint Fact Finding
  • How further?
  • Cabinet’s decision
coalition agreement 7 february 2007
Coalition Agreement, 7 February 2007

“To improve the accessibility by road in general, and in particular in the Randstad, the system of a kilometre charge (differentiated on the basis of time, place and environmental characteristics) will be introduced in the coming cabinet period, if necessary in stages. This under the conditions that the current taxes (BPM, MRB, Eurovignet) will be converted into a kilometre charge, and that the system costs and costs of billing and payment collection are not higher than 5% of the revenues.”

Randstad = (urban agglomeration of Western Holland),

BPM = tax on purchase of passenger cars and motorcycles

MRB = vehicle tax

objectives and scope of the kmp
Objectives and scope of the KMP
  • Objectives
    • Primary: pay for usage (‘fairness’)
    • Secondary: congestion/economy and environment
  • Scope of the KMP
    • All motor vehicles, passenger + freight
    • All roads in NL
    • Differentiate by time of day and location
    • Differentiate by (environmental) characteristics of vehicle
    • Conversion of current tax system (for purchase and ownership of a vehicle) into a new system (use of the vehicle)
main additional requirements
Main additional requirements
  • Free-flow operation
  • European interoperability directive …
  • Easy to use and understand the scheme
  • Accuracy sufficient for credibility
    • 99% of invoices less than 1% deviation (?)
  • Respect user privacy
  • Costs visible in the vehicle (?)
  • System should be able to support toll/point charges
  • System scalable and to allow stepwise implementation
  • Adequate prevention / detection of fraud
  • Flexibility for changes in road network, tariff structure
tentative schedule kmp
Tentative schedule KMP


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009




= go/no go


Price per kilometre draft bill


Joint Fact Finding


Preparing for

policy choices



Implementation strategy

Including tax transition issues




Realisation of public component












Requirement Specifications



Realisation of private component


Social implementation en communication

main questions market consultation 2006
Main questions Market Consultation(2006)
  • Can the KMP be achieved?
    • Which requirements are difficult to realise ?
  • Can the KMP be achieved at acceptable costs ?
    • Investment << € 3 billion
    • Operational cost < 5% of revenues

Involved: industry, toll operators, consultants

  • Phase 1: 42 interviews (industry, operators, consultants)
  • Phase 2: 12 assignments
main message market consultation
Main message market consultation
  • Yes, the KMP can be achieved
  • 2012 is feasible, provided that ....
  • Estimates initial investment: 30% lower
  • Estimates operational costs: scattered image, but tendency towards 5% objective can be observed
  • Limitations of results of market consultation:
    • Requirements not sufficiently clear yet
    • Organisation & business model / public – private undecided (including allocation of risks)
    • No operational examples to compare
    • Commercial bias
joint fact finding 2006 and beginning 2007
Joint Fact Finding (2006 and beginning 2007)
  • Together with local governments, social and business society, other Ministries
  • Preparation of policy choices:
    • Rate structure, congestion mark-up, differentiation on the basis of environmental characteristics
    • Conversion of current vehicles taxes
    • Organisational issues:
      • public/private
      • division of task and responsibilities
      • enforcement
  • Communication with citizens and companies
how further
How further?
  • Second half of 2007:
    • Cabinet’s decision
    • Implementation strategy and policy choices
  • Planning legislation
    • December 2007: Draft to Lower House and EU for notification
    • Beginning 2008: start discussion with Lower House
  • Preparations for tendering procedure:
    • End of 2007;
    • New cost monitor
cabinet s decision second half of 2007
Cabinet’s decision (second half of 2007)

Scope of Cabinet’s decision

  • Conversion of current (fixed) vehicle taxes into the kilometre charge (KMP)
    • Amount of reduction of the current vehicle taxes;
    • How to introduce the kilometre charge and to reduce the vehicle taxes?;
  • Rate structure
    • Differentiation according to environmental characteristics and according to time en place
  • Organisational and legislative issues
    • Who decides about the rates?,
    • Is the kilometre price in legal terms a tax or a levy?
    • Exemptions
thanks for your attention
Thanks for your attention

 English

 Roadpricing