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America And World War I. Chapter 19 in The Americans. Essential Questions:. What were the causes of WWI? Why did America become involved in WWI? What were the consequences of WWI for America and the world?. Four Main Causes of WWI.

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america and world war i

America And World War I

Chapter 19 in The Americans

essential questions
Essential Questions:
  • What were the causes of WWI?
  • Why did America become involved in WWI?
  • What were the consequences of WWI for America and the world?
four main causes of wwi
Four Main Causes of WWI
  • Militarism: The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy
    • An arms race developed between world powers when countries all tried to get better and stronger weapons than the others
  • Imperialism: The process of becoming a more powerful nation by getting control over weaker nations
    • Led to competition for colonies between European nations and eventually America
    • Nationalism: A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.
    • Led to competitive rivalries between nations in Europe
  • Alliances: a formal agreement of union between nations
system of alliances
System of Alliances
  • Triple Entente: The Allies
      • France
      • Britain
      • Russia
  • Triple Alliance: Central Powers
      • Germany
      • Austria-Hungary
      • Italy
      • Ottoman Empire
  • These alliances grouped together and when the war started they all supported each other
wwi leaders the big four
WWI Leaders – The Big Four

Wilson: American President

George Clemenceau: French leader

David Lloyd George: British Prime Minister

Vittorio Orlando: Italian Prime Minister

german leader kaiser wilhelm ii
German Leader: Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Wilhelm II Bio at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilhelm_kaiser_ii.shtml
assassination sparks war
Assassination Sparks War
  • The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCTIaiiGB4o
  • This caused Austria Hungary and it’s allies to declare war Serbia and it’s Allies
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCbNE3ToePA

Assassin GavriloPrincip

Archduke Franz Ferdninand

lead up to american involvement
Lead Up to American Involvement
  • Lusitania: A British liner that was sunk by the Germans in which 1,198 people died (128 Americans)
  • Zimmerman Note: a note from Germany revealing German support for Mexico against the US if the US entered the war
  • Convoy System: a system in which merchant ships would cross the Atlantic in large groups to prevent enemy attack
american troops
American Troops
  • Selective Service Act: required men to

register with the government for a random

draft (24 million men registered, 3 million

were called up)

  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF): The American forces led by General John J. Pershing
  • Conscientious Objector: a person who opposes a war on moral grounds
  • Pacifist: a person who objects to all wars
  • Mobilization: When a country prepares for war
fighting wwi
Fighting WWI
  • No man’s land: A space between the two sides trenches that was extremely dangerous for a person to be in
  • Trench warfare: when soldiers dug into the field and fought for yards of land at a time (extremely deadly way to fight)
  • U-Boat: German submarines; often used against merchant ships
war technology
WarTechnology

German TriPlane

French BiPane

Tanks

Machine Guns

Grenades

cost of war
Cost of War
  • 22 million dead (1/2 civilians)
  • 20 million wounded
  • 10 million refugees
  • $338 billion spent on war
  • 48,000 Americans killed in battle
  • 62,000 Americans killed by disease
  • 200,000 Americans wounded
american homefront
American Homefront
  • War Industries Board: committees set up to efficiently make supplies for the war effort led by Bernard Baruch
  • War Bonds: sold to raise money for the war effort
  • Committee on Public Information: sent out biased messages called propaganda to the American people in an effort to get them to support the war; led by George Creel
    • Propaganda: information spread to gain support for the war
  • Espionage and Sedition Act: a person could be punished for saying anything disloyal or for interfering with the war effort
  • Food Administration: led by Herbert Hoover, promoted rationing
  • National War Labor Board: created to limit labor disputes and maximize production
  • Great Migration: when hundreds of thousands of black Americans moved from the South to cities in the North during the war
russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • Vladmir Lenin: Led a coup of the Russian government by the Bolsheviks.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knjUx7A-G3w&feature=relmfu
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofWYQh0dFWA&feature=relmfu
  • This event took Russia out of World War I
armistice
Armistice
  • At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918, (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month), a ceasefire came into effect.
  • This is the date Americans celebrate Veterans Day.
fourteen points
Fourteen Points:
  • A speech given by Wilson to Congress about how the war should end
  • First 5 points about how to avoid a war like this in the future
    • No secret treaties among nations
    • Freedom of the seas for all
    • Tariffs and other economic barriers should be removed between countries to promote free trade
    • Arms should be reduced to the lowest amount possible while still maintaining domestic safety
    • Colonials powers should consider the interests of colonists as well as their own interests
  • Next 8 points dealt with boundary changes that called for self-determination (the right for people to make their own countries)
  • The 14th Point was a call to create a League of Nations (a group of reps for all countries that could meet and discuss problems to prevent them from escalating to war)
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Agreement after WWI
    • Established 9 new nations (including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia)
    • Carved 5 areas out of the Ottoman Empire and gave them the France and England as temporary colonies until they were ready for self-rule
    • Barred Germany from maintaining an army
    • Made Germany return Alsace and Lorraine to France
    • Made Germany pay 33 million dollars to the allies as reparations (war damages)
    • Included a war-guilt clause: forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI
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