PTT303 /2 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION SEM 1 (2013/2014)

# PTT303 /2 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION SEM 1 (2013/2014)

## PTT303 /2 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION SEM 1 (2013/2014)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. PTT303 /2 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATIONSEM 1 (2013/2014) Batch Processing Modelling (Equipment Rating and Economic Evaluation)

2. Student should be able to; EVALUATE the processing after rating the equipments ESTIMATE economic data of bioprocess plant

3. Course outline • Equipment rating • Economic evaluation of a flowsheet • Engineering economic review • Cost factors • Generating Economic Reports • Strategies for increasing profits

4. Equipment rating • Design mode vs. rating mode

5. Equipment sizing vs. rating • Sizing- calculate the dimensions of an equipment for a fixed operating condition • Rating- calculate the percentage of use of an equipment with fixed dimensions • Default setting in SPD: • Design Mode (sizing) when equipment dimensions are not specified, e.g. reactor volume, filter area, etc. • In Design Mode, a max available size for the equipment is specified. If the calculated equipment size > max allowable size, SPD will employ multiple pieces of equipment (with each equipment size < max allowable size.)

6. Filter (PFF-1) sizing • Right click your PFF, choose “Equipment Data” to check on the calculated filter area • Remember that: Flux =Vol/(Area x time) • Data needed: • Flux & time (revisit by right click PFF Operation Data/ FILTER-1 • Feed volume determined by SPD from P-1 (reactor) • Hence, SPD calculates filter area Calculated filter area = 1.5 m2 Design mode Max available size = 80 m2

7. Rating • If Rating Mode is selected, the size & number of the units can be specified SPD takes this info to calculate the output of simulation, e.g. M&E balances, process time, etc. • Task: switch the PFF sizing method to Rating Mode ( right click PFF/ Equipment Data) & do the following changes: • Filter size = 2 m2 (1unit) • Filter flux = 150 L/m2hr (revisit by right click PFF Operation Data/ FILTER-1, Duration, Filtration Time) • Save your tutorial as different file name

8. Working session Determine the filtration time when PFF is switched to Rating Mode

9. Economic evaluation • Stream classification • Economic evaluation features

10. Stream classification • We need to classify all input and output streams as raw materials, revenues or wastes (solid, liquid or gaseous) & supply their cost data before we perform the throughput analysis, plant economic evaluation & environmental impact assessment calculations. • By default, SPD estimates a purchase or selling price for a stream based on the price of each component and the composition of the stream.

11. Stream classification • Output streams: • Classification: • “C” = Revenue • “Emission” = Emission • “B + Heptane” & “Wash out” = Aqueous Waste • Cost: • Emission and aqueous waste disposal cost = \$0.10/kg (click “Set by user” first) • Revenue stream (automatically calculated based on stream composition) Path: Tasks/Stream Classification • Main Product Rate: • Stream “C” • Reported based on “single component C” Pre-inserted cost data

12. Cost broken down into: Capital cost Equipment cost Building costs Operating cost Utilities Labor Raw material Index of economic performance Return on Investment (ROI) Annual Income/ Capital costs *100% Usually aim for 30% Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Discounted Cash Flow Payback Period/Time Amount of time to repay automatically Usually aim for 7 years or less Net Present Value (PVV) Value of project in current year currency Engineering economic review

13. Cost factors (operation level) • For each unit procedure you can set cost data for each operation under “Labor, etc.” tab • Path: Right click an equipment procedure/ Operation Data/(any operation) Create new labors Can only be change in Databanks/Heat Transfer Agents

14. Cost factors (equipment level) • Path: Right click an equipment procedure/ Equipment Data/ (any operation) • Purchase Costs • Automatically calculated • Set by user • Adjustments • Change material of construction • Change opening and maintenance costs

15. Cost factors (section level) • Section- segment or a group of equipment • Capital cost adjustments (piping, instrumentation) • Operation cost adjustments (labour, facilities, QA)

16. Cost factors (flowsheet level) • Path: • Edit/ Flowsheet Options/ Economic Evaluation Parameters • Right click on Flowsheet Economic Evaluation Parameters • Cater for • Overall Financing • Time Valuation • Income taxes

17. Economic evaluation • Pre-simulation check: • All streams are classified, especially the main revenue stream • Filter setting: • Rating Mode • Area = 2.0 m2 • Flux = 150 L/m2h • Set under Recipe Scheduling Information • Number of batches • Cycle time = 12hours

18. Economic evaluation steps • Solve M&E balances • Task/ Perform Economic Calculations • Results: • View/ Executive Summary • Reports/ Economic Evaluation • Reports/ Cash Flow Analysis • Report/ Itemized Cost Report

19. Strategies to increase profits • Increase number of batches • Try larger batches, e.g. maybe 100? • Let SPD calculate the maximum batches • Debottleneck • Size debottleneck i.e equipment capacity • Time debottleneck i.e higher equipment use • Capital costs will rise with equipment sizes • Operation costs can be optimised with better labor and facility usage