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PTT303 /2 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATIONSEM 1 (2013/2014) Batch Processing Modelling (Equipment Rating and Economic Evaluation)
Student should be able to; EVALUATE the processing after rating the equipments ESTIMATE economic data of bioprocess plant
Course outline • Equipment rating • Economic evaluation of a flowsheet • Engineering economic review • Cost factors • Generating Economic Reports • Strategies for increasing profits
Equipment rating • Design mode vs. rating mode
Equipment sizing vs. rating • Sizing- calculate the dimensions of an equipment for a fixed operating condition • Rating- calculate the percentage of use of an equipment with fixed dimensions • Default setting in SPD: • Design Mode (sizing) when equipment dimensions are not specified, e.g. reactor volume, filter area, etc. • In Design Mode, a max available size for the equipment is specified. If the calculated equipment size > max allowable size, SPD will employ multiple pieces of equipment (with each equipment size < max allowable size.)
Filter (PFF-1) sizing • Right click your PFF, choose “Equipment Data” to check on the calculated filter area • Remember that: Flux =Vol/(Area x time) • Data needed: • Flux & time (revisit by right click PFF Operation Data/ FILTER-1 • Feed volume determined by SPD from P-1 (reactor) • Hence, SPD calculates filter area Calculated filter area = 1.5 m2 Design mode Max available size = 80 m2
Rating • If Rating Mode is selected, the size & number of the units can be specified SPD takes this info to calculate the output of simulation, e.g. M&E balances, process time, etc. • Task: switch the PFF sizing method to Rating Mode ( right click PFF/ Equipment Data) & do the following changes: • Filter size = 2 m2 (1unit) • Filter flux = 150 L/m2hr (revisit by right click PFF Operation Data/ FILTER-1, Duration, Filtration Time) • Save your tutorial as different file name
Working session Determine the filtration time when PFF is switched to Rating Mode
Economic evaluation • Stream classification • Economic evaluation features
Stream classification • We need to classify all input and output streams as raw materials, revenues or wastes (solid, liquid or gaseous) & supply their cost data before we perform the throughput analysis, plant economic evaluation & environmental impact assessment calculations. • By default, SPD estimates a purchase or selling price for a stream based on the price of each component and the composition of the stream.
Stream classification • Output streams: • Classification: • “C” = Revenue • “Emission” = Emission • “B + Heptane” & “Wash out” = Aqueous Waste • Cost: • Emission and aqueous waste disposal cost = $0.10/kg (click “Set by user” first) • Revenue stream (automatically calculated based on stream composition) Path: Tasks/Stream Classification • Main Product Rate: • Stream “C” • Reported based on “single component C” Pre-inserted cost data
Cost broken down into: Capital cost Equipment cost Building costs Operating cost Utilities Labor Raw material Index of economic performance Return on Investment (ROI) Annual Income/ Capital costs *100% Usually aim for 30% Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Discounted Cash Flow Payback Period/Time Amount of time to repay automatically Usually aim for 7 years or less Net Present Value (PVV) Value of project in current year currency Engineering economic review
Cost factors (operation level) • For each unit procedure you can set cost data for each operation under “Labor, etc.” tab • Path: Right click an equipment procedure/ Operation Data/(any operation) Create new labors Can only be change in Databanks/Heat Transfer Agents
Cost factors (equipment level) • Path: Right click an equipment procedure/ Equipment Data/ (any operation) • Purchase Costs • Automatically calculated • Set by user • Adjustments • Change material of construction • Change opening and maintenance costs
Cost factors (section level) • Section- segment or a group of equipment • Capital cost adjustments (piping, instrumentation) • Operation cost adjustments (labour, facilities, QA)
Cost factors (flowsheet level) • Path: • Edit/ Flowsheet Options/ Economic Evaluation Parameters • Right click on Flowsheet Economic Evaluation Parameters • Cater for • Overall Financing • Time Valuation • Income taxes
Economic evaluation • Pre-simulation check: • All streams are classified, especially the main revenue stream • Filter setting: • Rating Mode • Area = 2.0 m2 • Flux = 150 L/m2h • Set under Recipe Scheduling Information • Number of batches • Cycle time = 12hours
Economic evaluation steps • Solve M&E balances • Task/ Perform Economic Calculations • Results: • View/ Executive Summary • Reports/ Economic Evaluation • Reports/ Cash Flow Analysis • Report/ Itemized Cost Report
Strategies to increase profits • Increase number of batches • Try larger batches, e.g. maybe 100? • Let SPD calculate the maximum batches • Debottleneck • Size debottleneck i.e equipment capacity • Time debottleneck i.e higher equipment use • Capital costs will rise with equipment sizes • Operation costs can be optimised with better labor and facility usage