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INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Established and Evolving Therapies. Maruf Aberra(MD). ULCERATIVE COLITIS. Making the diagnosis and assessing disease activity Clinical diagnosis, confirmed by objective findings from endoscopic and histological studies.

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INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Established and Evolving Therapies

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    1. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASEEstablished and Evolving Therapies Maruf Aberra(MD)

    2. ULCERATIVE COLITIS Making the diagnosis and assessing disease activity • Clinical diagnosis, confirmed by objective findings from endoscopic and histological studies. • Non-inflammatory bowel disease causes of colitis need to be ruled out

    3. ULCERATIVE COLITIS, Disease activity • Mild -up to 4 bloody stools daily and no systemic toxicity • Moderate - 4-6 bloody stools daily and minimal toxicity. • Severe- > 6 stools daily and signs of toxicity, such as fever, tachycardia, anemia raised ESR. • Fulminant ulcerative colitis- > 10 bloody stools daily, continuous bleeding, anemia requiring blood transfusion, abdominal tenderness, and colonic dilation on plain abdominal radiographs. • Disease activity index

    4. Ulcerative Colitis, Natural history • The distribution of disease activity in a cohort of patients is constant each year • Half the patients are in clinical remission at any given time • In the first 3–7 years after diagnosis 25% of patients were in remission 18% had activity every year 57% had intermittent relapses • The only significant predictor of remission or relapse was disease activity in the preceding year. • After 10 years, the colectomy rate was 24% • Overall, patients with UC have a normal life expectancy

    5. Medical Management UC Induction of response and remission • First-line therapy for patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis is 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine) cpds, which include oral and rectal mesalazine formulations. • Oral pro-drugs – Sulfasalazine [5-ASA linked to sulfapyridine] - Olsalazine [5-ASA dimer] - Balsalazide [5-ASA ,4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine] • Controversy exists about the optimum induction dose of 5-ASA • Generally Oral or topical doses of >1500 mg per day are sufficient to induce remission

    6. Medical Management UC • Patients who do not respond to oral 5-ASA compounds or rectal therapy or both should be treated with oral prednisone 40 mg per day up to 1 mg/kg per day or equivalent. • Patients with severely active ulcerative colitis and those for whom oral corticosteroids have not worked, need to be admitted to hospital for intravenous corticosteroids. • Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and infliximab are all effective in patients with severe ulcerative colitis who do not respond to intravenous corticosteroids.

    7. Ulcerative Colitis –Stepwise approach

    8. Surgical management of UC • Emergency surgery - indicated in patients with life threatening complications, such as perforation, refractory rectal bleeding, and toxic megacolon not responsive to medical management. • Elective surgery-indicated in patients with dysplasia or cancer, ulcerative colitis refractory to medical management, or intolerance to long-term immunosuppression or other medical therapies. • The most widely accepted surgical technique is total proctocolectomy with ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis.

    9. Crohn’s Disease Disease activity • Mild to moderate - ambulatory ,able to tolerate oral alimentation , without manifestations of dehydration, toxicity, abdominal tenderness, painful mass, obstruction or >10% weight loss. • Moderate to severe disease - failure to respond to treatment for mild disease, more prominent symptoms of fever, weight loss, abdominal pain or tenderness, intermittent nausea and vomiting without obstruction, or significant anemia) • severe to fulminant disease- persisting symptoms on corticosteroids, high fevers, persistent vomiting, evidence of intestinal obstruction, rebound tenderness, cachexia, or evidence of an abscess.

    10. Crohn’s Disease, natural history • Behavior of the disease varies substantially during its course • One year after diagnosis -10–30% of patients have an exacerbation -15–25% have low activity, and -55–65% are in remission. • 13–20% of patients have a chronic active course of disease activity • 67–73% have a chronic intermittent course • Only 10–13% remain in remission for several years. • After 20 years, most patients will require surgery • The life expectancy of patients with Crohn’s disease is slightly reduced

    11. Medical Management Induction of remission • First-line therapy for patients with mild to moderate disease is controversial. • Sulfasalazine at doses of 3000–4500 mg per day is effective for induction of remission in active disease. • mesalazine has not consistently proved efficacious. • Budesonide 9 mg per day is more effective than oral 5-ASA 4000 mg per day, and has similar efficacy to prednisolone. • studies of antibiotics for active Crohn’s disease failed to show efficacy for induction of remission. • Patients who do not respond to the above, and outpatients with moderate to severe disease are treated with oral prednisone 40 mg per day up to 1 mg/kg per day, or equivalent

    12. CD-Management Management of fistulising Crohn’s disease • Close interaction b/n surgeon and gastroenterologist • Antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin 1000 mg per day or metronidazole is widely used for the first-line treatment of fistulas • Azathioprine or mercaptopurine are used as a second-line treatment. • Infliximab if above measures fail -Adalimumab • fistulotomy or drainage with setons or both.

    13. CD Medical Management-stepwise

    14. Crohn’s Disease, Surgical management • Will not cure Crohn’s disease • Indications for emergency and elective surgery are similar to those for ulcerative colitis. • Specific indications - fibrotic strictures /symptomatic/ -fistulas / internal, enterovesical fistulas, and enterocutaneous fistulas/ • The optimum therapy for post-operative maintenance Mesalazine, Azathioprine and mercaptopurine Metronidazole showed short-term efficacy, and Ordnidazole given for a year was effective

    15. Emerging therapies for IBD • emerging novel therapies— • Biological therapies—directed at cytokines (eg, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol) and receptors (eg, visilizumab, abatacept) • T-cell activation, selective adhesion molecule blockers (eg, natalizumab, MLN-02, alicaforsen) • Anti-inflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin 10) • Modulation of the intestinal flora (eg, antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics) • Leukocyte apheresis and many more monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, recombinant growth factors • MAP kinase inhibitors targeting various inflammatory cells and pathways.

    16. Safety and monitoring of medical treatments for IBD • Medical therapies of IBD , particularly immunosuppressant and modulators, are associated with Several side-effects. • Systemic corticosteroid toxicities • Azathioprine and mercaptopurine toxicities pancreatitis, fever, rash, arthralgia, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, veno-occlusive disease, leucopenia, infection, and lymphoma. • Cyclosporine and tacrolimus toxicities hypertension, headaches, paraesthesias, seizure, gingival hyperplasia, hypertrichosis , anaphylaxis (ciclosporin only), infection renal insufficiency • Anti-TNFα antibody (infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol) Hypersensitivity reactions, autoantibody, demyelination (optic neuritis,multiple sclerosis), drug-induced lupus, worsening of CHF, infections , NHL, and possibly solid tumour malignancies.

    17. Neoplastic complications of IBD • increased risk of developing malignancies including colon cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis and small-bowel carcinoma in patients with Crohn’s enteritis. • A screening colonoscopy with a minimum of 30 mucosal biopsies should be done in patients with ulcerative colitis to rule out colonic neoplasia, dysplasia, or cancer, 8–10 years after onset of ulcerative colitis symptoms

    18. IBD-Nutrition-Related Concerns • Review Nutrient Digestion & Absorption • DIET THERAPY for Specific Conditions • Nutrient-Drug Interactions • Potential Nutritional Interventions (omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, glutamine)

    19. Thank You