Russian Architecture Kianna McCarter
Something about architecture • Although much of the invaluable property of Russia has been lost, there still remain more than forty thousand officially-recorded historic sites. • For most of its history, Russian architecture has mostly been religious. Russia's most characteristic architectural feature is its onion-domed churches. • Churches were for centuries the only buildings to be constructed of stone, and today they are almost the only buildings that remain from its ancient past. • The basic elements of Russian church design emerged around the eleventh century. • Some stylistic generalizations would be that a lot of Russia’s famous buildings are big and colorful, which gives them unique style. • The Russian Orthodox churches are distinguished by their verticality, bright colors and multiple domes which provide a striking contrast with the flat Russian landscape often covered in snow.
Examples of famous architecture • The Red Square (Moscow) • Kremlin Palace • Lenin Mausoleum • Uspenksy Sobor
St basil’s the blessed • The architect: Barma and Postnik Yakovlev • Features: • Church constructed on Red Square in Moscow between 1554 and 1560 • It was built to show respect to Russia’s victory over the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan • Before the extra tiers were added to the Ivan the Great Bell-Tower, the it was the tallest building in Moscow (65 meters). • Historical events: The Russian holy fool who was “idiotic for Christ’s sake” and who was buried in the church vaults during the reign (1584–98) of Tsar Fyodor I. • Legends/Myths: Rumor is that Barma and Postnik Yakovlev are the same people and Ivan had them blinded so that they could not create anything to compare • Can you visit? Yes
Isaac’s Cathedral • Architect: Auguste de Montferrand • Features: • Largest Russian Orthodox cathedral in St Petersburg • Built 1818 - 1858 • Was originally the city's main church and the largest cathedral in Russia • Info: The cathedral's facades are decorated with sculptures and massive granite columns. The interior is decorated with incredibly detailed mosaic icons. A large, brightly colored stained glass window of the "Resurrected Christ" takes pride of place inside the main altar. The church, designed to accommodate 14,000 standing worshipers, was closed in the early 1930s and reopened as a museum. Today, church services are held here only on major ecclesiastical occasions. • Can you visit? Yes
The red square • Red Square remains, as it has been for centuries, the heart and soul of Russia. • The square's name has nothing to do with communism or with the color of many of its buildings. In fact it derives from the word 'krasnyi', which once meant 'beautiful', and has only come to mean 'red' in contemporary Russian • The rich history of Red Square is reflected in many paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon and others. The square was meant to serve as Moscow's main marketplace. It was also the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, and occasionally a coronation for Russia's Tsars would take place. The square has been gradually built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established
The grand Kremlin palace • Architect: Konstantin Thon • Built in 1849 • The Red Staircase The Red Staircase or Parade Staircase is the gateway to some of the most important receptions rooms in the Palace. Fifty-eight steps of history rebuilt here. The original ceremonial red staircase into the Palace of Facets, long since destroyed. It was on that Red Staircase, 400 years ago, that Ivan the Terrible killed the messenger, who brought him bad news; but more than 300 years ago, during a failed Palace coup, a young Peter the Great saw his friends thrown on bayonetts; that Napoleon Bonaparte , almost 200 years ago, walked into Palace after occupying the Kremlin. And on this Red Staircase that recent history has been made.
Upenskysobor//dormition cathedral • Architect: AristotileFioravanti • The Cathedral is regarded as the mother church of Muscovite Russia. In its present form it was constructed between 1475–79 at the behest of the Moscow Grand Duke Ivan III by the Italian architect AristoteleFioravanti. From 1547 to 1896 it is where the Coronation of the Russian monarch was held. In addition, it is the burial place for most of the Moscow Metropolitans and Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Sources • http://www.tristarmedia.com/bestofrussia/kremlin.html • Google Images • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/516839/Saint-Basil-the-Blessed • www.insider-tour.com/russia_travel_guide/.../st_basil_cathedral. • www.moscow.info/ • www.saint-petersburg.com • http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~powellm/grand.html