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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Rus and Kiev Map: The Growth of Russia Christianity in Russia Russia under Attack Faces of History: Alexander Nevsky The Rise of Russia
The Rise of Russia Main Idea Starting as a blend of Slavs and northern Europeans, the Russians organized as a state, became Christian, and fought invaders. • Reading Focus • How did the Rus affect the early history of Kiev? • What factors helped establish Christianity in Russia? • What peoples attacked Russia?
The Rus of Kiev Order • Slavs among those who occupied plains • Entered historical record AD 800s, as written in The Russian Primary Chronicle • During mid-800s, Slavs along Dnieper River fighting among selves; asked for help from northern Europeans, called the Rus • Three brothers, Rus people migrated to Novgorod, trading center; oldest brother, Rurik, brought order to Slavs • 882, Rurik’s successor, Oleg, ventured further south to Kiev, united region • 907 Oleg wanted to extend Kiev south, successfully attacked Constantinople The Rus and Kiev For thousands of years, hunter-gatherers managed to make a living in the sometimes harsh climate of what we now call Ukraine and Russia.
The Growth of Kiev • Oleg’s victory produced advantageous trade agreement, beginning of close connection between Byzantine Empire, Russian people • Late 900s, Rus extended control far beyond Kiev • Defeated Khazars, freed several Slavic tribes Khazars had controlled • Yaroslav the Wise • Kievan region became state called Kievan Rus • During height of Kievan Rus’ power, prestige, ruler was Yaroslav the Wise • 1019, Yaroslav became grand prince, ruled until 1054 • Made many cultural, administrative improvements to Kievan Rus
Collected religious books, hired scribes to translate from Greek into Slavic language Began ambitious building program to beautify Kiev Military record was mixed Regained lost territory, defeated nomadic Pechenegs Tried to attack Constantinople, but forces were crushed More successful dealing with western Europe Maintained good diplomatic, trade relationships Arranged marriages between daughters, European princes Cultural and Administrative Improvements
Find the Main Idea Who were the Rus, and what was their connection to Kiev? Answer(s): a group of northern Europeans—perhaps Vikings—who came to rule the Slavs
Slavonic Mass Cyril and Methodius • Used Slavonic language to celebrate mass; use of native language helped convert many Moravians • The two developed written alphabet for Slavonic language, based on Greek alphabet, called Cyrillic alphabet • Thanks to Cyril, Methodius Byzantine version of Christianity spread to Russia • The Byzantine Empire affected Russia not only with warfare, trade, but also with Christianity • Before Rurik, Oleg, Slavs practiced native religion based on nature, with many gods • 863, Constantinople churchman sent two Greek monks to Moravia to convert Slavs to Christianity, brothers Cyril and Methodius Christianity in Russia
Christian Russia • Establishment • Important convert, Grand Duke Vladimir I of Kiev • Baptized a Christian; married sister of a Byzantine emperor • Conversion helped gain economic, political advantages from Byzantine Empire • State Religion • Even if conversion politically motivated, he built libraries, schools, churches • In 988, Vladimir made Christianity state religion of Kievan Russia • Christianity spread, but tensions between branches of church grew worse • Russian Orthodox Church • Following 1054 schism, semi-independent church set up in Russia still linked to Orthodox Church in Constantinople • Eventually became Russian Orthodox Church • Vladimir made saint in new church
Summarize How did Christianity spread to Russia? Answer(s): Monks from the Byzantine Empire traveled to Moravia and established the Cyrillic alphabet and a Slavonic mass to spread Christianity.
Bogolyubsky Stage Set • After death of Yaroslav, internal disputes common among Rus • Main threat from princes whose lands were within state’s borders • Princes wanted to enlarge lands • 1169, one such prince, Andrew Bogolyubsky, captured Kiev, became new grand prince • Andrew insisted on ruling from home city, Vladimir • Further weakened Kiev’s position as the capital • Stage set for fierce attacks from Europe, Asia Russia under Attack During the mid-1000s, Kievan Rus reached the height of its power as a center of trade and culture. But by the end of the 1200s, it had suffered a steep decline. Kievan Rus was under attack—first by princes within its borders, and later by invaders from beyond. Kievan Rus Weakened
A Threat from the East • The Mongols • 1200s, Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, swept across Asia • Genghis Khan and Mongols created immense empire • Mongol raiders defeated Rus and their allies in 1223 • End of Kievan Rus Control • 1227, Genghis Khan died, empire divided into four regions • 1240, Kiev fell to Mongols led by Batu Khan • Mongol state established in southern Russia; Kievan Rus dominance over • Disaster Avoided • Mongols mostly left local princes in charge, did not interfere with church • Prince Alexander encouraged Russians not to rebel against new masters • As result Mongols did not destroy as much as in other lands
Prince Alexander Swedes • Same Prince Alexander who calmed Mongol threat, turned attention to Swedes • July 15, 1240, Alexander launched surprise attack against Swedish camp on Neva River • Swedes defeated; Russia saved from full-scale invasion from north • At same time Mongols attacked Rus, danger came from different direction • 1240, band of Swedes invaded Russian territory north of Novgorod • Swedes wanted to take control of lucrative trade route between Russia, Byzantine Empire A Threat from the North
Teutonic Knights Massacre on the Ice • German military order of knights wanted to force Russians to abandon Orthodox Church, convert to Roman Catholicism • Teutonic Knights invaded from Baltic Sea; Alexander fought several battles with them • April 1242, Alexander’s army lured Knights onto thinning ice • Ice cracked; men, horses fell into freezing water • Battle known as massacre on the ice, one of Russia’s most famous • Nevsky celebrated as hero Invasion from the Baltic • Alexander known as Alexander Nevsky after victory • Banished by city of Novgorod after meddling in internal affairs • When another invader threatened, Novgorod turned again to Alexander
Tatars Muscovy • Tatars, central Asian people who spoke a Turkic language, emerged as Russia’s rulers after Mongols • 1480, Russia eventually freed from foreign domination • Muscovy, east of Kiev, grew in importance within Russia • Became capital of nation that gradually expanded to occupy much of Asia From Kiev to Muscovy For more than 200 years after Alexander’s battles, Russia remained under the control of Asian nomadic peoples.
Sequence Which people first invaded Russia in 1223? What other groups invaded? Answer(s): Mongols; Swedes, Germans