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KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit Step 2: Assess Performance & Opportunities Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems. Step 2 Assess Performance & Opportunities Toolkit 2 e Evaluating School HVAC Systems. Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for Schools KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit.

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slide1
KEEPS Energy Management ToolkitStep 2: Assess Performance & OpportunitiesToolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems
  • Step 2
  • Assess Performance & Opportunities
  • Toolkit 2e
  • Evaluating School HVAC Systems

Kentucky Energy Efficiency

Program for Schools

KEEPS Energy

Management Toolkit

keeps energy management toolkit toolkit 2e evaluating school hvac systems
KEEPS Energy Management ToolkitToolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems

KEEPS

Energy

Management

Toolkit

Toolkit 2e

Evaluating School HVAC Systems

7 step energy management process
7-Step Energy Management Process

Make the Commitment

Assess Performance and Opportunities

Set Performance Goals

Create an Action Plan

Implement the Action Plan

Evaluate Progress

Recognize Achievements

evaluating school hvac systems overview
Evaluating School HVAC Systems Overview

Importance

KEEPS Five-step HVAC Evaluation Process

KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Forms

KEEPS Energy Assessment Tools

KEEPS Assessment Report

why evaluate a school s hvac system
Why evaluate a school’s HVAC system?

Gain knowledge and understanding of HVAC systems and how they impact energy use and performance

Identify future upgrades or replacement for poor-performing equipment

Make recommendations and present Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs) to district stakeholders

keeps hvac evaluation process
KEEPS HVAC Evaluation Process

Step 1: Identify and Document Equipment and Controls

Step 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection of all Systems

Step 3: Review Operations and Maintenance Programs

Step 4: Evaluate HVAC Controls

Step 5: Identify Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs)

recommended tools
Recommended Tools
  • Assortment of Screwdrivers
    • Flat-head (slotted) and crossed (Phillips)
    • Various sizes
  • Flashlight
  • Digital Camera
    • Helpful and highly recommended
step 1 identify and document equipment and controls
Step 1: Identify and Document Equipment and Controls

Review all HVAC equipment

Gather information on equipment including identification, ratings, fuel type and age

Sources include:

  • Facility staff and school personnel
  • Rating plates
  • Building drawings and specifications
step 2 conduct a visual inspection of all systems
Step 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection of All Systems

See first-hand the condition of the HVAC Equipment

Get a general observation and feel for the condition of the HVAC Systems.

Perform the Step 2 visual inspection during the Step 1 identification process.

observe the overall appearance of the equipment
Observe the Overall Appearance of the Equipment

Motors and Belts (Noisy, Squeal)

Dampers (Linkage Connected, Lubricated)

Filters and Fans (Dirty)

Bearings (Noisy)

Duct Connections (Air Leakage)

Condenser and Evaporator Coils (Dirty)

Burners (Dirty)

Insulation (Missing or Damaged)

Piping and Valves (Leaking)

step 3 review operations and maintenance o m programs
Step 3: Review Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Programs

Verify if maintenance and repairs are performed on a regular basis

Confirm what type of record-keeping is maintained

Verify if any labeling is performed to facilitate O&M

Verify if personnel are properly trained

review current o m programs
Review Current O&M Programs

Does a preventative maintenance program exist?

Are any predictive maintenance activities performed?

Are any informal records available pertaining to repairs and maintenance?

o m training
O&M Training
  • Are training needs being addressed?
  • Is there any specialized equipment that requires staff training?
  • Have other personnel received training (i.e. teachers trained on programming thermostats)?

23

step 4 evaluate hvac controls
Step 4: Evaluate HVAC Controls
  • Understand what degree of Building Automation System (BAS) controls are in place to reduce energy consumption
  • Review current HVAC temperature adjustment settings and policies
  • Review other HVAC controls that may be used to control energy consumption
  • Determine commissioning needs

28

step 5 identify energy management opportunities emos
Step 5: Identify Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs)

Use information gathered from steps 1 through 4 to determine potential Energy Management Opportunities for HVAC systems and controls

hvac systems emos
HVAC Systems EMOs

EMO 1: HVAC replacement, upgrade, modifications and/or additions

EMO 2: O&M program enhancements

EMO 3: HVAC controls installation and implementation

EMO 4: Commissioning, retro-commissioning, re-commissioning

emo 1 hvac considerations
EMO 1: HVAC Considerations

Replacement of the HVAC systems

Upgrade or refurbishment of the systems

emo 1 hvac replacement considerations
EMO 1: HVAC Replacement Considerations

Age of Equipment. Is it more than 15 years old or greater than the median age on the ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table?

Condition of Equipment. How good or bad did it look during the visual inspection?

Efficiency Recommendations. Does the equipment meet ASHRAE Recommended Efficiency ratings?

ashrae life expectancy table
ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table

Source: Limited Condition Survey and Usability/Reuse Study, page 34. University of Connecticut Greater Hartford Campus. September 10, 2003.

ashrae hvac minimum efficiency ratings
ASHRAE HVAC Minimum Efficiency Ratings

Review equipment efficiency with ASHRAE HVAC Minimum Efficiency Ratings for Zone 4 K-12 Schools

Source: ASHRAE 30% Advance Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, page 938. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers . September 2010.

emo 1 hvac upgrade refurbishment considerations
EMO 1: HVAC Upgrade/Refurbishment Considerations

Age of Equipment. Is it more than 8 years old, but less than 15?

Condition of Equipment. How good or bad did it look during the visual inspection?

Efficiency Recommendations. If there are no existing economizers, and heat recovery and installation looks physically possible, consider upgrading with economizers.

keeps report input
KEEPS Report Input

Locate “HVAC & Controls” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and describe the school’s existing HVAC system.

List HVAC energy management opportunities and recommendations.

emo 2 o m program enhancements
EMO 2: O&M Program Enhancements

Review the information recorded on the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - O&M.

Use observations made during the visual inspection to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of current O&M programs.

Provide recommendations based on the extent and effectiveness of O&M activities observed.

o m opportunities preventative maintenance
O&M Opportunities:Preventative Maintenance

Recommend a preventative maintenance program if none exists.

If not practical, then at a minimum, establish a system for tracking maintenance and repairs.

o m opportunities predictive maintenance
O&M Opportunities:Predictive Maintenance

Evaluate benefits of a predictive maintenance program.

  • Infrared analysis
  • Oil analysis
  • Ultrasonic analysis
  • Vibration analysis
o m opportunities labeling
O&M Opportunities: Labeling

Recommend the labeling of equipment, services, piping, valves and other equipment.

Labeling is an inexpensive and effective method for helping personnel properly operate and maintain equipment.

o m opportunities training
O&M Opportunities: Training

Operation and maintenance of existing equipment

Specialized equipment

Energy reduction policies and procedures (teachers and staff)

Use of programmable thermostats (teachers and staff)

operations maintenance benefits
Operations & Maintenance Benefits

Energy savings

Extension of equipment life

Enhanced internal air quality

Elimination of contaminant sources

Increased occupant comfort

Improved reliability

Avoidance of classroom disruptions

Maintenance staff empowerment

keeps report input50
KEEPS Report Input

Locate “Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.

Describe O&M energy management opportunities and recommendations.

emo 3 hvac controls installation and implementation
EMO 3: HVAC Controls Installation and Implementation

Review the information captured on KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - Controls

Provide recommendations based on the extent and effectiveness of HVAC controls activities observed

hvac controls energy management system ems opportunities
HVAC Controls: Energy Management System (EMS) Opportunities

If a Energy Management System (EMS) exists, then maintain the system and verify that programming is updated.

If using programmable thermostats, then upgrade to an EMS and verify proper thermostat programming.

If timers are used, then upgrade to an EMS and verify that timers are set correctly.

If using manual thermostats, then upgrade to programmable thermostats at a minimum.

Consider potential for active outside air controls.

hvac controls temperature adjustment opportunities
HVAC Controls: Temperature Adjustment Opportunities

If heating and cooling is not adjusted automatically, then recommend a program for adjusting be put in place

  • See KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit E1: Thermostat Setback Opportunities)

Train personnel that control setbacks

hvac controls temperature adjustment opportunities cont
HVAC Controls: Temperature Adjustment Opportunities (cont.)

If complaints about the building’s comfort are non-existent or minimal, consider further modifications to temperature setbacks.

Review the override capabilities for temperature adjustment and verify that if overrides exist, they are properly controlled.

hvac controls miscellaneous opportunities
HVAC Controls: MiscellaneousOpportunities

Consider separate controls for zones.

Recommend ventilation fans be shut down when not required.

Adjust housekeeping schedule to minimize HVAC impact.

keeps report input56
KEEPS Report Input

Locate “HVAC & Controls” in the KEEPS Assessment Report, then modify and add respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.

Describe HVAC controls energy management opportunities and recommendations.

emo 4 commissioning retro commissioning and re commissioning
EMO 4: Commissioning, Retro-commissioning and Re-commissioning

If the school has never been commissioned, recommend retro-commissioning. If the school has not been commissioned in 2 to 3 years, recommend re-commissioning.

If the school has undergone major building renovations or expansion or it is planned in the future, commissioning should be recommended.

If ENERGY STAR® Target Finder benchmarked the school higher than the average CBECS K-12 school, consider commissioning.

If school is due for HVAC replacement, defer commissioning until equipment is replaced.

commissioning benefits
Commissioning Benefits

Schools have an average 3.3-year simple payback, or $0.09/ft².

Retro-commissioning typically translates into energy savings of 5 to 15%.

As a result of the process, staff will understand the building and how to keep it in optimal condition.

keeps report input59
KEEPS Report Input

Locate “Retro-Commissioning” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.

Modify the inset box by multiplying the building square footage by $.30/sq ft to obtain cost, and by $.09/sq ft to obtain estimated annual savings. Simple payback would be 3.3 years.

references
References

O&M Best Practices

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf

Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems

Http://www.p2pays.org/ref/26/25985.pdf

Recommended Actions Checklist - CO₂ Sensors

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/recommended_actions_checklist

EnergySmart Schools U.S. DOE

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energysmartschools/o-and-m_guide.html

ASHRAE Energy Design Guides website

http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/938

ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table

http://www.masterplan.uconn.edu/images/0323%20West%20Hartford%20Study.pdf

Collaboration for High Performance Schools

http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/40

resources
Resources

Available for download from the KEEPS Toolkit Library

  • http://www.kppc.org/KEEPS
end of presentation
End of Presentation

Kentucky Energy Efficiency

Program for Schools

  • (502) 852-0965
  • www.kppc.org/KEEPS

KEEPS is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through the combined efforts of the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence, the U.S. Department of Energy and KPPC.

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