CH 9 Public Interest pp. 236-254
Public policy • 236 all the goals that a government pursues in human affairs • Seat belts • Speed limits • Zoning • Flood control • Old-age pensions • Military intervention • Etc.
Economic interests • Trade association • 244 Businesses, often in the same type of business. • American Trucking Association • National Restaurant Association • American Bankers Association
Labor union • 244 Workers in the same industry or type of job • AFL-CIO • Retail Clerks International Union • International Association of Machinists • Aerospace Workers • American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Workers
Public-interest group • 247 interested in issues that affect most of all of the people in the nation. • Public Citizen, Inc. • League of Women Voters
Single-interest group • 251 PACs that concentrate their efforts on one issue • Abortion • Gun control • Health care
Lobbying 9/8 • 251 activities by which groups put pressure on members of the government. • US • Jack Abramoff, lobbyist convicted of criminal practices, speaks to Colbert about his activities…..
Grass roots • 253 interest groups starting with ordinary people, on small scale, but grow as their number of supporters increases • Tea Party Movement
Multimedia Magnet Project: • You will profile an Interest group of your choice. • Submit a list on Monday, _______________. • Five Interest Groups you would prefer to cover. • One will be selected from your list by next Wednesday. • Try to pick at least one that no other student might request….. • The instructions for the project will be distributed next week.
Project • Handout: Interest group project: PPT/portfolio • Give me an interest list of 5 interest groups you know of. Put them in order of importance for a project. First, most want to report on, etc. • What “community” is this group trying to effect? • What does this group offer to the community? • What participation does this group offer to individuals in it? • What groups might oppose this group? • What media methods does this group use? • What contact methods does this group use? • How successful will this group be? Explain. • Due: one week before final….. TBA: ___________________
EC 236Political parties (3) 236 Interest groups (3) Contribute to candidates Influence government Concerned with a narrow issue List and describe the three main areas in which political parties and interest groups differ • Nominate candidates • Control government • All public affairs concern them
EC: How do interest groups stimulate interest in public affairs? (2) • 236 Publicizing their policies • Drawing attention to their policies
EC Name some functions of interest groups (5) • 236 stimulate interest in public affairs • Represent shared values of members • Provide specialized information to government • Encourage political participation • Check and balance the political process
EC What is the main criticism of interest groups? (3) • 236 they do not represent the interests of the entire country. • They may have too much influence • They use unethical tactics
EC: At what point does an organization become an interest group? (2) • 242 when it tries to influence the actions of government, • Promotes its own political goals and interests in government
EC What are the four major types of interest groups? • 242 • Business • Labor • Agriculture • Professional
EC: Give an example for each group (4) • 242 business: • United States Brewer’s Association • Labor: • the AFL-CIO • Agriculture: • The National Grange • Professional: • the American Medical Association
EC: How does a trade union differ from a labor union? (2) 242 Trade union Labor union Workers in same/similar type of job/work in the same industry. • Represents a business segment
EC: For what reasons, other than economic, are interest groups created? (3) • 242 to promote causes • welfare of certain groups, • religion
EC: How does a public interest group differ from other interest groups? • 242 they focus on the roles that will benefit all Americans, not specific ones.
EC: For what three reasons do interest groups reach out to the public? (3) • 249 supply people with what they think is necessary information • Build a positive image for the group • Promote particular public policies
EC: Why do some interest groups use propaganda? 249 to influence public attitudes toward their agendas
EC: What are some propaganda techniques? (5) • 249 • Name calling • Labeling • Well-known symbols (positive and negative) • Band-wagon approach • Plain-folks approach
EC: Why do interest groups try to influence political parties? • 249 ensure that their ideas will have a chance to influence government policymaking
EC: How is lobbying used to influence public policy? (4) • 249 disseminate information • Testifying before congressional panels • Organizing grass-roots support • Publishing ratings of politicians
Images: • 237, question • They are all trying to raise public awareness of issues important to them
Images: • 238, question • Individuals have a chance to participate, be involved in the political process • Bring people together who share interests
Images • 240, question, • That Congress does what the interest groups want • + name a successful interest group you might be aware of
Images: • 243, question, • In order to spread their influence over a variety of areas that might affect the business.
Images: • 244, questions • A. • 1945, 1955 • B. • High unemployment rate after WW II made workers feel they needed protection. Many joined unions.
Images: • 250, question • Interest groups influence their members • They get many votes
Images: • 251, questions, • A. • Number and variety of PACs stayed stable • B. • Raise campaign funds • Increase in number of PACs shows the effect of strict “hard money” regulations. • PACs are not regulated nor reported. • + what does the cartoonist suggest about PACs? • Student response should be supported by the text.
Images: • 253, question, • It is readily available • Information can be continually and quickly updated • + how far can the Internet reach for these groups? • Student response should be supported by the text.
Images: • 257, question, • 28 • A. • Congress • B. • Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address • 29 • Without affiliation (identification, cooperation) with special interest groups, members of Congress cannot serve the people. • why aren’t the “people” as powerful as some interest groups? • Ordinary people are not organized enough to • Have the money to make large contributions to politicians and issues. • Reach a large part of the American population
How could an interest group's policies not be in the best interests of other Americans? • There are few limits on what an interest group might want to see as a public policy change. • For example, one interest group might support the building of an inland ocean to protect endangered sea animals. • That plan might cause citizens to lose their homes and lands, and farmers to lose their farms.
How does our government's system of checks and balances affect the work of interest groups? • It allows interest groups to function at different levels of government and to work to influence one or all of the branches. • For example, if an interest group cannot effect a change locally, it can mount a national campaign. • If Congress does not respond to an interest group's needs, the group can try to influence the Courts' rulings or the executive branch's decisions in its favor.
How did the development of mass media relate to the expanded use of propaganda? • Without mass media, propaganda could not be effectively used to influence many people. • The fact that mass media reaches many people almost instantly allows the message to reach and affect many people in a timely way. • Jon Stewart points out the practices of FOX NEWS’ talk shows using the recent comments made by President Obama about their attacks on him…… Stewart calling them a “spite-driven anger machine.”
What does the use of propaganda show about propagandists' attitudes and beliefs about people? • Propagandists might assume that people's viewpoints can be influenced and their behavior can be changed. • Some of the techniques used suggest that propagandists do not believe that people carefully examine the information that reaches them via the mass media. • Some propagandists seem to believe that people can be fooled by biased information.