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Ch. 9 Memory. Mr. McElhaney PLHS. Remembering is an Active Process. Memories can be lost and revised Types of Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Info that appears to be lost may still be in memory Problems with memory: Forgetting and storage issues

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Ch 9 memory

Ch. 9 Memory

Mr. McElhaney


Remembering is an active process
Remembering is an Active Process

  • Memories can be lost and revised

  • Types of Memory

    • Short Term Memory

    • Long Term Memory

  • Info that appears to be lost may still be in memory

  • Problems with memory:

    • Forgetting and storage issues

  • Recovered memories are problematic

  • Strategies such as Mnemonics can improve memory


  • Definition- Memory is an active system that receives, stores and organizes, alters, and recovers information

  • Encoding- info is changed into usable and storable form

Sensory memory
Sensory Memory

  • New info is perceived through the senses

  • Info is held exactly as perceived for a few seconds (Transduced)

  • Preceding short term Memory

All of the senses
All of the Senses:

  • Use Transduction:

    • The process of changing energy (stimulus) to a form that can be processed by the nervous system-

    • For example- light to a form that can be recognized by the retina.

Dual system in memory

Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory

Small desk and file cabinet concept

Dual System in Memory

Fig. 9.2 Remembering is thought to involve at least three steps. Incoming information is first held for a second or two by sensory memory. Information selected by attention is then transferred to temporary storage in short-term memory. If new information is not rapidly encoded, or rehearsed, it is forgotten. If it is transferred to long-term memory, it becomes relatively permanent, although retrieving it may be a problem. The preceding is a useful model of memory; it may not be literally true of what happens in the brain (Eysenck & Keane, 1995).

Short term memory 1
Short Term Memory 1

  • Is working memory

  • Includes Selective attention

  • Holds small amounts of info for a brief time

  • Encoding in STM-

    • memories are stored by images

    • And phonetically- by sound, words and letters

Short term memory 2
Short Term Memory 2

  • Storehouse for small amounts of info

  • Phone numbers/shopping lists

  • Working memory holds info while other activities are taking place.

  • Is sensitive to interruption + interference

Processing info helps memory
Processing info helps Memory

  • Connecting to LTM

  • Chunking

  • Rehearsal

  • Elaborative Rehearsal

Short term memory 3
Short Term Memory 3

  • Limited size = 7 “slots”/Information bits

  • Good mem = 9 bits

  • Recoding= reorganizing information

  • Chunking = form of recoding, creating connections/groups between info

  • Rehearsal- repeating info increases STM and can lead to transfer to LTM

Elaborate rehearsal
Elaborate Rehearsal

  • Linking new info to memories in LTM will improve memory

  • Elaborate = extend, think about info as you study

  • Ask yourself “why” why would that be true?

  • Try to relate new ideas to your own experiences and knowledge

Long term memory
Long Term Memory

  • Found in the Cortex of Brain

  • Hippocampus clearly associated with memory (see brain map of memory)

  • permanent storehouse for Memory

  • Everything you know goes into LTM

  • Important + Meaningful info gets transferred to LTM

  • The more you know the easier it is to add memory

Long term memory1
Long Term Memory

  • Encoding = storage (LTM) stored based on meaning

  • Recoding/reorganizing/revision is present in LTM

  • example- Chunking can/will work in LTM

  • Constructive Processing = updating memory

    • Fills in the gaps of memory with logical conclusions or extensions, or inferences

    • (Pseudo Memories are false memories)

    • Relates to how we can sometimes not know the source of some memories

Organization of info in ltm
Organization of Info in LTM

  • Patterns of Association = memory structure

  • Examples: rules, images, symbols, similarities, formal meaning, personal meaning

  • Network Model (or schema)

    • Associations of new of linked ideas

    • We make organization based on linked meanings

Memory aids
Memory Aids

  • Chunking info= try to link 2-3 or more facts into larger chinks and your memory will improve

  • Key to memory is to find meaning

  • Always think about how you feel about things

Fig. 9.7 In the model shown here, long-term memory is divided into procedural memory (learned actions and skills) and declarative memory (stored facts). Declarative memories can be either semantic (impersonal knowledge) or episodic (personal experiences associated with specific times and places).

Types of ltm skill and fact

Procedural- Skill

Conditioned Response

Learned Actions


Lower brain-cerebellum

Typing and Driving Actions

Types of LTM = skill and fact

Types of memory

Episodic Memory= experiences


When we access we re-experience

Most easily forgotten LTM

Declarative- Facts

Names, faces, dates, words, ideas

Expressed in words and symbols

Semantic Memory

Encyclopedia of basic knowledge

You don’t forget

Types of Memory

Memory formation
Memory Formation

  • Consolidation- the forming of LTM memory

  • Takes time to move info from STM to LTM

  • Meaning is key

Re dintegrative memories
Re-dintegrative Memories

  • Memories in LTM

  • Can be triggered by cues

  • Cues (associations/clues) always enhance memories

  • Triggeredmemories are cues to other connected memories

  • Pictures, smells, songs, sounds

  • Cue-Dependent Forgetting

    Stimuli associated with memory are missing

Serial position effect
Serial Position Effect

  • STM

  • Being able to memorize the beginning and end of a list

  • But not the middle

  • Why?-

  • The end- interference, STM has limited capacity

Implicit and explicit memories

Implicit Memories

We are not aware



Giving a person limited cues

Info previously learned is reflected in cued responses

Related to implicit memory


Explicit Memories

Recall is used

Conscious memories

Trying to remember

Implicit and Explicit Memories


  • Encoding Failure: When a memory was never formed in the first place

  • Memory Traces: Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that occur when memories are stored

  • Memory Decay: When memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memories

  • Disuse: Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not used or retrieved





Brain anatomy and memory
Brain Anatomy and Memory

  • Locations of memory is identified through brain mapping

  • Experiments through Electroconvulsive Shock destroys memory

    • Mostly effects recent memories

    • Before Consolidation

Brain 2
Brain #2

  • Hippocampus= closely associated with LTM

  • Used in Consolidation of memory

  • Known as the “Switching Station” between STM and LTM

  • Grows neurons that make new connections with in the brain

  • Damage to hippocampus = Aterograde amnesia= inability to store new memories LTM (“50 First Dates”)

Brain 3
Brain 3

  • 3lbs of brain

  • Cerebral Cortex- multiple areas associated

  • Front of Cortex = Episodic Memory- events

  • Back area of Cortex = Semantic Memory- ideas


Retrograde (before) Amnesia

Forgetting events that occur before an injury or trauma

Anterograde- Amnesia

“50 First Dates”

Forgetting invents tha follow an injury


Memory supports
Memory Supports

  • Making Notes- write things down

  • Prevents info from slipping out of short term memory before you can review it and store it more permanently