approaches to ax and tx for the slp for patients with head and neck cancer n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 66

Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on

Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer . MEGAN HYERS, MS, CCC-SLP REBECCA SCHOB, MS, CCC-SLP PPMC Ampitheater March 29, 2014. Dysphagia and XRT. 3 phases of Treatment Before During After

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Approaches to Ax and Tx for the SLP for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer MEGAN HYERS, MS, CCC-SLP REBECCA SCHOB, MS, CCC-SLP PPMC Ampitheater March 29, 2014

    2. Dysphagia and XRT • 3 phases of Treatment • Before • During • After “Few other cancers demonstrate the need for anticipatory Tx and rehab to the magnitude required in the management of head and neck cancer” (Myers, Barofsky, and Yates. 1986)

    3. Phase 1: Evaluation before XRT • Clinical eval of speech, voice, swallowing • establish baselines • optimize performance status • implement strategies as needed • determine need for further evaluation

    4. Phase 1: Treatment before XRT • Patient counseling • compare normal aerodigestive A&P • discuss swallow, voice production, airway management, trach • review short- and long-term XRT sequelae • Swallowing • Breathing • Trismus • Mucositis • Xerostomia

    5. Intervention for Dysphagia Order based on muscle effort, ease of application, ease of learning: • postures • sensory stimulation • swallow maneuvers • diet modification

    6. Pretreatment Dysphagia Protocol • Tongue exercises include passive range of motion and active assistive range of motion. • Tongue Hold • Effortful Swallow • Laryngeal elevation exercises: pitch glides and vocalizing /i/ at a high pitch. • Mendelsohn Maneuver and Shaker Exercises • Jaw range of motion exercises: maintain rotary movements of mastication and decrease the chance of trismus

    7. Myofascial Release • Start pt working on their scar tissue – ASAP once staples removed, scabs have fallen off • Mobilizing the scar tissue may help prevent adhesions, reduced ROM, persistent pain, more significant effects of lymphedema • Promotes blood flow and blood vessel growth • Most benefit comes just below pain threshold • Use firm pressure, start gently and increase to deeper massage (see handout) • Desensitization

    8. Trismushttp://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/trismus.htm • Persistent contraction of the masticatory muscles due to hypovascularity or neural damage. • Prevalence:10%-40% • “Elevator Muscles” • Temporalis • Masseter • Medial Pterygoid • Lateral pterygoid

    9. Trismushttp://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/trismus.htm Results in: • Pain: muscle guarding • Limited oral opening: • Difficulty wearing dentures • Difficulty having dental work performed • Difficulty with intubation for later (elective) surgeries • Dysarthria: decreased speech intelligibility • Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing/eating/drinking • Reduced rotary mastication • Can’t use spoon/fork, take bite of sandwich etc.

    10. Trismus Therapy Stretching Systems : • Tongue blades (short stretch) • Therabite or Orastretch system (7x/day, 7reps, 7 seconds or 3x/day, 5 reps, 30 seconds)

    11. Trismus stretching systems (cont) • DynasplintTrismus System (DTS) prolonged stretch • Current study : randomized trials using stretching system for 3-6 months • Start 5-10 minutes, increase to 30-45 mins, 3x/day or maximum 90 mins/day • Once achieved, then increase tension

    12. Trismus Therapy Manual Treatments: • Myofascial release • Intra-/extra-oral palpation, stretching, massage • Oral aperture measurements • Female normal bite range is 35-38 mm • Normal for an adult male is 45 to 50 mm • Exercises should be continued for min: 1 year

    13. Contraindications for Trismus • Pain • Poor dentition • Oral aperture of <10mm

    14. Phase 2: during XRT • short-term: get pt through XRT (tolerate and maintain oral intake) • compensatory strategies, swallow maneuvers • exercises regimen • pain management • desensitization therapy • saliva substitutes • diet changes • monitor w/subjective and objective evaluators.

    15. Anticipate Acute Effects of XRT • edema • dermatitis and mucositis • mild changes to loss of taste • xerostomia • odynophagia • erythema • dysgeusia • hypersensitivity • decreased appetite • acute changes in swallowing occur • vocal deterioration (hoarseness pitch changes, vocal fatigue) • later: • stiffness and sensory loss • pain and edema • depression

    16. Mucositis • Inflammation and ulceration of mucosal membranes • From XRT or Chemo • If Chemo: Usually in 4-10 days • If XRT: 2 weeks, may last 6-8 weeks • Results in • Pain • Dysphagia • Bleeding • Infection • Change in taste • Decreased appetite and PO intake

    17. How Development of Oral mucositis WHO Grading of Oral mucositis

    18. Mucositishttp://www.caphosol.ca/health-care-professionals Stage 1 (above) Stage 3 (below) Stage 2 (above) Stage 4 (below)

    19. Px & Tx of Oral Mucositishttp://www.uspharmacist.com/content/s/172/c/29044 • pretreatment dental examination • improved dental hygiene • clean the mouth every 4 hours and at bedtime • more often if the mucositis worsens • use a non-detergent toothpaste • floss between the teeth • use an alcohol-free mouthwash. Use saline or baking soda mouthwash to soothe & clean the mouth

    20. Tx of Oral Mucositis • Use artificial saliva, lozenges, gum to lubricate the mouth. • Suck ice chips • Drink at least 3L/day • Avoid citrus fruits, tomatoes, acidic foods, alcohol, and hot foods that can aggravate mucositis lesions • Avoid hard, crunchy foods • No smoking • No alcohol

    21. Treatments available • Saliva substitutes • topical and oral medications • Med Oral • Oral Balance (gel) • Mouthkote (lemon based) • Salivart (oil based) • Alcohol-free toothpaste/mouthwash (biotene)

    22. Treatment for Xerostomia • Sip water, ice chips • Artificial saliva (rinse, spray) • Suck on lozenges/candies (sugar free) • Chew to stimulate saliva production (gum, wax, etc) • Moisten foods • Avoid salty, dry foods, high sugar content foods/drinks • Avoid alcohol or caffeine, also acidic juices • Aloe water, papya • Netti bowl/pot, nasal saline lavage

    23. Overall intervention techniques • Mucositis/Xerostomia: • Oral hydration : mist bottles, humidifier, etc • Dysgeusa/hypersensitivity • Desensitization therapy: utensils, taste, texture • Diet modifications • Dysphonia • Vocal hygiene strategies • Personal amplification (e.g., Chattervox)

    24. Pureed… again? Need variety! Protein powders Nut butters Frozen veggies Anything! What can your blender handle?

    25. Stress Management • Laughter!! • Pacing and Rest (related to daily tasks and eating) • Guided meditation or relaxation • Breaking down tasks, taking breaks • Mindfulness practices • What’s energy giving (music, pets, walks, bath…) • Basic stretches and mobility • Discuss self-care, talking to someone who can just listen

    26. The Rule of 10Logeman, Sisson & Wheeler, 1980 • To eat or not to eat? • oral transit time and pharyngeal transit time > 10 seconds, maintain PO but will need non-oral supplementation • aspiration > 10% , pts eliminate consistency • coughing, choking ? at10% pts stop eating but silent aspirators continue to eat • aspiration > 10% = non-oral feeding

    27. When to TF? • If PO is good, wait for the problem • if nutrition is poor before XRT, then immediate • weight loss greater than or equal to 5% in less than or equal to 1 month or greater then or equal to 10% during XRT

    28. Enteral Means of Nutrition • J-tube (jejunostomy) placed between the jejunum and surface of abdominal wall • G-tube (gastrostomy) placed in the stomach • PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) placed endoscopically • PFG (percutaneousflurosopicgastostomy) placed fluoroscopically • Dobhoff/N-G (naso-gastric) tube – place in nose and passed to esophageus • TPN (total parenteral nutrition) nutrients administered intravenously-bypass GI system

    29. Why TF? • Optimize tx tolerance • reduce complications related to poor nutrition • improve healing and recovery • increase strength and energy • enhance overall QOL • Temporary!!

    30. Made it!!

    31. Phase 3: After XRT • re-eval speech and swallow when acute Sx have resolved • one month pt follow-up • re-review effects of fibrosis • swallowing exercises protocol begins and may be continued for at least one year (5 mins sessions/10x/day) • evaluate and treat prn • MBSS/VFSS or FEES if needed

    32. Up the Ante for Dysphagia/DysarthriaTx • When able, use Biofeedback as much as possible! • FEES • EMG monitoring for swallow strengthening • Mirror • Tactile feedback • Record and self-evaluate for voice • Vital Stim (Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation) • If okay’d by physician • No active neoplasm

    33. Know your resources • Prostheodontists or denturist • Palatal lifts, prosthesis for partial glossectomy… • Behavioral health, MSW • Smoking cessation • Depression • Nutritionist • Financial assistance • Return to work • Support Groups • Clergy

    34. Weaning from TFs • Swallow must be safe and efficient • Consider nutritional status pre-XRT • Consider wt loss before/during XRT • Reducing TFs – MUST maintain adequate nutrition/caloric intake and hydration

    35. Make a plan Pt’s frequent complaint: lack of appetite • small frequent meals 5-7 meals /day • carry snacks • Goal of eating every hour • consider what else effects appetite: • taste loss • dysphagia • Constipation, diarrhea • reduced enjoyment

    36. Barriers • Mental • Anxiety about swallowing d/t past pain/difficulty • Effort (cooking time, eating time, swallowing strategies, calorie counting, etc) • Feelings of isolation, everyone finished before me at meals, food gets cold, not enjoyable anymore • Most difficult to rehab: one who eats only 1 meal/day, lives alone, etc

    37. In Practice: • The Soft Skills are the most important • Motivational Interviewing • Listen for the individual’s needs: emotional will likely come before physical • goals/motivation to eat a type of food, go out to eat with friends, upcoming holiday meal • ID the support system and get them involved • eat first thing in the morning BEFORE TF so one has an appetite, normal routine… • Try the scariest foods together in sessions

    38. Lymphedema Assessment and Treatment for the SLP

    39. Lymphedema • Accumulation of fluid that is relatively high in protein content • Often found in H&N Cancer following surgery or XRT • Dx made by physician, not SLP • Why are we looking? Why is it important? • Edema may exacerbate dysphagia • Negatively impacts QOL

    40. Prevention of lymphedema Trach tie • should be 1 finger loose as long not moving • can create turniquet effect lump/bump • can induce swelling above trach tie if too tight • if too loose, may cause coughing and pt may be resistant

    41. Medical Hx • reveals clues re: lymphedemavs other edema • fluctuations in edema • onset of edema vsTx/trauma • physical characteristics of edema • medical contraindications to Tx? • Physical limitations for implementations? • Post-XRT fibrosis of neck

    42. Timing • how long since surgery, xrt, chemo, or trauma? • Acute post-op edema first 30 days after surgery • CAN INTERVENE DURING this time if SEVERE • typically wait 4-6 wks after surgery or XRT (can start 2 weeks after surgery) • common onset of lymphedema is 6-8 wks after XRT completed

    43. lymphedema • Swelling usually starts most distal: lower neck, then progresses upwards into neck, jowls, etc from scar up. Over time. • Usually NOT painful • if it is, seek other causes

    44. other causes of edema • hot tub • exercise • allergy • insect bite • drug reactions • thyroid function • etc

    45. Edema characteristics • Soft or Firm? • Persistent or fluctuating? AM to PM, day to day • periods of resolution or exacerbation? • Garden, car, airplane, heat? • Pitting vs Non-pitting? • If pitting, stage it

    46. Edema characteristics continued • Visual, color? • Should be approximately same as surrounding tissue • If Dark red tissue • may be angiosarcoma => lymphatic mets • Physical: feverish, hot, tender • may be infection or metastasis

    47. Pitting edema • eval based on limbs • Push in gently for 5 seconds, • judge how long it takes for pit to refill

    48. Lymphedema Classifications • International Society of lymphology Lymph rating scale according to Foldi • NIH lymphedema scale • lymphedema measures • Foldi Stage (0, 1, 2, 3) • MDACC stage (O, 1a, 1b, 2, 3)