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Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research PowerPoint Presentation
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Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research

Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research

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Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research

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  1. Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research Donald J. Wink Department of Chemistry (MC 111) University of Illinois at Chicago 845 W. Taylor Street Chicago, IL 60607 dwink@uic.edu

  2. Chemistry Education Scope of the field Practice Theory Research Careers / Training

  3. Chemistry Education Collaborators: Sharon Fetzer Gislason, UIC Department of ChemistryJulie Ellefson Kuehn, William Rainey Harper CollegeMaria Varelas, UIC College of Education UIC Chemistry: Luke Hanley, Willam Haney, Wade Freeman, Audrey Hammerich, Duncan Wardrop, Raymond Forslund, David Dickson, Dan Zavits, Rob Stahelin, Richard Kassner UIC Education:Marlynne Nishimura, Stacy Wenzel, Vicki Chou, Joe Becker, Charisma Mac, Niki Christodoulou, Carole Mitchener, Roger House UIC Mathematics: Herbert Alexander, Sheila McNicholas, Phil Wagreich, Naomi Fisher, Jeff Lewis, John Baldwin UIC Physics: Julius Solomon UIC Engineering: Tom Moher, John Regalbuto, David France UIC Biology: Aixa Alfonso, John Lussenhop, Mary Ashley, Steve Kelso UIC Pharmacy: John Fitzloff, Chuck Woodbury UIC Nursing: Janean Holden UIC Earth and Environmental Sciences: Roy Plotnick, Neil Sturchio Purdue University: Gabriela Weaver, Fred Lytle Northeastern Illinois University: Pratibha Varma-Nelson, Tom Weaver Harold Washington College: Dennis Lehman, Helene Gabelnick New York University: Jim Canary Georgia State University: Jerry Smith Chicago State UniversityJoseph Young, Michael Mimnaugh Truman College: Yvonne Harris Olive-Harvey College: David Zoller Moraine Valley Community College: Ewa Fredette College of DuPage: Susan Shih, Dan Fuller, Mary Newberg Oakton Community College: Jerry Maas, Connie Churchill

  4. Chemistry Education • National Science Foundation: • The Match Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum; DUE 93-54526. • CPLP: A Chemical Professional Laboratory Program for General Chemistry; DUE 96-53080. • UV-Visible Spectrophotometers for the CPLP Network; DUE 98-51220 (PI Julie Ellefson Kuehn, Harper College). • University of Illinois at Chicago - Community College: Collaborative for Excellence in Teacher Preparation; DUE 98-52167 (PI Philip Wagreich). • The University of Illinois at Chicago Graduate Fellows in K-12 Education Program; DUE 99-97537. • A Series of Workshops in the Chemical Sciences; DUE 00-89417 and 03-41138 (PI Jerry Smith, Georgia State). • Revision of Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum; DUE 01-26958 (PI Jim Canary, NYU). • Integrated Science Courses for Elementary Education and Non-Science Majors; DUE 03-11624 (PI Maria Varelas, UIC). • Scientists, Kids, and Teachers (SKIT): A GK-12 Partnership with the Chicago Public Schools; DGE 03-38328. • CASPiE: The Center for Authentic Practice in Science Education; CHE 04-18902 (PI Gabriela Weaver, Purdue).

  5. Chemistry Education Scope of the field What is chemistry education? Chemistry differs from physics: “Only when we have this final theory will we know for sure what is a principle and what an accident, what facts about nature are entailed by what principles, and which are the fundamental principles and which are the less fundamental principles that they explain.” Steven Weinberg, Can Science Explain Everything? Anything?The New York Review of Books, May 31, 2001

  6. Chemistry Education Scope of the field What is chemistry education? Chemistry differs from biology: “Throughout most of the past century, biologists have generally eschewed the possibility, or even the value, of an overarching theory of life…Typically, explanations in the biological sciences are provisional and partial, and the criteria by which they are judge are, and always have been, as heterogeneous as their subject matter.” Evelyn Fox Keller, Making Sense of LifeCambridge: Harvard, 2002

  7. Chemistry Education Scope of the field • What is chemistry education? • Some things that are different about chemistry: • Elements and their atoms are a consistent and fundamental component of chemistry. • Molecular representations and their kin are used to describe the fundamental entities in chemistry. • The fundamental building blocks of chemistry are beyond our power of direct observation. • Chemistry research—and chemistry learning—are usually linked very closely to specific human needs.

  8. Chemistry Education Scope of the field • Chemists’ Guide to Effective Teaching, Prentice-Hall • T. Greenbowe, N. Pienta, M. Cooper, Eds. • Part I. Cognition • 1 Introduction Dudley Herron • 2 Constructivism & Learning Theory Mark Cracolice • 3 Learning Styles Stacey Lowery Bretz • 4 Guided Inquiry and Learning Cycles Michael Abraham • 5 Relevance and Learning Theories Donald Wink • 6 Modeling George Bodner • Conceptual Understanding Dorothy Gabel

  9. Chemistry Education Scope of the field • Chemists’ Guide to Effective Teaching, Prentice-Hall • T. Greenbowe, N. Pienta, M. Cooper, Eds. • Part II. Teaching Strategies • Analogies MaryKay Orgill & George Bodner • Problem Solving Diane Bunce • Cooperative Learning Melanie Cooper • Concept Maps Mary Nakhleh • Science Writing Heuristic Brian Hand & Tom Greenbowe • Team Learning P.Varma-Nelson & B. Coppolla

  10. Chemistry Education Scope of the field • Chemists’ Guide to Effective Teaching, Prentice-Hall • T. Greenbowe, N. Pienta, M. Cooper, Eds. • Part III. Learning with Technology • Electronic Data Collection Norbert Pienta & John Amend and the Lab • Wireless in the Lecture Jimmy Reeves & C. R. Ward • Visualizations Roy Tasker • Summary Editors

  11. Chemistry Education Practice GOOD WILL HUNTING (1997) • Skylar:...You know, there are very smart people here at Harvard, and even they have to study, because this is really hard.  And yet, you do it so easily, I don't understand.  I don't understand how your mind works. • … • Will Hunting: All right, well...Beethoven, OK?  He looked at a piano and it just made sense to him.  He could just play. • Sk: So what are you saying, you play the piano? • WH: No, not a lick. I mean, I look at a piano, I see a bunch of keys, three pedal and a box 'o wood.  But Beethoven, Mozart. They saw it, they could just play.  I couldn't paint you a picture, I probably can't hit the ball out of Fenway, and I can't play the piano. • Sk: But you can do my O-chem paper in under an hour. • WH: Right.  Well, I mean, when it came to stuff like that I could always just play.  That's the best I can explain.

  12. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Classroom teaching, P-20 • Professional education—Teaching of non-chemists—Chemical technician training • Textbook publication • Training of chemistry teachers

  13. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Classroom teaching, P-20Illinois Learning Standards 12C “Know and apply concepts that describe properties of matter and energy and the interactions between them.”

  14. Early Elementary Late Elementary Middle/Junior High School Early High School Late High School 12.C.1a Identify and compare sources of energy (e.g., batteries, the sun). 12.C.2a Describe and compare types of energy including light, heat, sound, electrical and mechanical. 12.C.3a Explain interactions of energy with matter including changes of state and con­servation of mass and energy. 12.C.4a Use kinetic theory, wave theory, quantum theory and the laws of thermo­dynamics to explain energy transformations. 12.C.5a Analyze reactions (e.g., nuclear reactions, burning of fuel, decomposition of waste) in natural and man-made energy systems. 12.C.1b Compare large-scale physical pro­perties of matter (e.g., size, shape, color, texture, odor). 12.C.2b Describe and explain the proper­ties of solids, liquids and gases. 12.C.3b Model and describe the chemical and physical characteristics of matter (e.g., atoms, molecules, elements, compounds, mixtures). 12.C.4b Analyze and explain the atomic and nuclear structure of matter. 12.C.5b Analyze the properties of materials (e.g., mass, boiling point, melting point, hardness) in relation to their physical and/or chemical structures. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Classroom teaching, P-20

  15. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Classroom teaching, P-20 “What should the high school science laboratory of the future look like?” http://www.laboratorychicago2020.org

  16. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Professional education—Teaching of non-chemists • Liberal Arts and Sciences: Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Biological Sciences • Engineering: Chemical, Civil, Electrical, Computer, Mechanical, Industrial • Nursing: Bachelor’s of Science • Pharmacy: Doctor of Pharmacy • Associated Health Professions: Medical Lab Sciences, Human Nutrition, Physical and Occup’l Therapy • Dentistry and Medicine These are the students who get a degree in “general chemistry”!

  17. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Professional education—Chemical technician training: ACSChemTechLinks • (1) develops an interactive; web-based system to update, validate, maintain and disseminate performance-based voluntary, industry, skill standards;(2) establishes a network of consultants to build and maintain local partnerships as a basis for meeting technician education needs;(3) develops an on-line national clearinghouse for information in chemistry-based technician education;(4) provides professional development for two-year college faculty; (5) provides career information to attract students to become technicians in chemistry-related industry.

  18. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Textbook publication

  19. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Textbook publication y = kx, where k is a constantk is the constant of proportionality. The constant of proportionality k is fixed for all samples. Molar mass, molarity, mass percentage, metric ratios, density are all constants of proportionality. Dimensional analysis, unit factors, conversion factors are all applications of proportional reasoning.

  20. Chemistry Education Practice • How do people carry out chemistry education activities? • Training of chemistry teachers • Standard 1: The competent chemistry teacher possesses basic scientific and mathematical skills, utilizes safe laboratory practices, and is aware of issues of public concern. • http://www.isbe.net/profprep/standards.htm

  21. Chemistry Education Practice Integrated Science Curriculum Courses can be taken in any order and at any campus The Physical World Unit 0: Enterprise of Science Unit 1: Exploring the Phenomena of Sound and Light Unit 2: The Physical Earth Unit 3: Earth’s Place in the Universe The Biological World Unit 0: Systems and the Movement of Matter, Energy, and Information Unit 1: Cells and Organisms Unit 2: Unity within diversity of life Unit 3: Inheritance and genetics Unit 4: Evolution The Chemical World Unit 0: Sociology of science Unit 1: Chemical composition and change Unit 2: The Chemistry of Life Unit 3: Chemistry and Society

  22. Chemistry Education Theory FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS OF DUTIFUL STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE. Ellen Langer, Mindfulness, 1989.

  23. Chemistry Education Theory • Components and use of a theoretical approach • Theories about learning: constructivism • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance —Modeling—Use of mathematics —Cooperative learning—Reasoning —Language—Problem solving—Conceptual and algorithmic knowledge

  24. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Theories about learning: constructivism • “The constructivist model is an instrumentalist viewof knowledge. Knowledge is good if and when it works,if and when it allows us to achieve our goals.” • George Bodner, J. Chem. Educ., 1986, 63,873-876

  25. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Theories about learning: constructivism • Knowledge is something that individuals and groups construct from their own choices, perhaps in interactions with non-humans. • Acceptance, not “truth” is the key step in making something knowledge. • Things are “known” in different ways depending on context and need, and there is no principled reason why multiple knowledges will ever be unified.

  26. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Theories about learning: constructivism • What constructivism “gets” for us: • Understanding of student persistence in misconceptions. • Approaches to teaching that make use of students’ own understandings about their experiences. • Models for interaction of student, curriculum, and teacher.

  27. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Theories about learning: constructivism • Metacognition: • “What saved the undergraduates here was that S2 did not allow S1 to pursue the path because she didn’t see how figuring out more partial pressures would lead them to the mole ratios.” • Rickey, D. and Stacy, A. J. Chem. Educ.2000,77, 915

  28. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance “I pile the crumbling pages on my desk and begin reading to my classes. They sit up. There are familiar names. Hey, that was my father. He was wounded in Africa. Hey, that was my Uncle Sal that was killed in Guam. When I read the essays aloud there are tears. Boys run from the room to the toilets and return red–eyed. Girls weep openly and console one another. They are suddenly interested in compositions with the title ‘My life…’” Frank McCourt, ‘Tis, Scribner: New York, 1999

  29. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance “…there’s something paradoxical about the notion that something can be “made” relevant—as if relevancy could be imposed or added onto an existing structure.” “…Another important limitation is that “relevancy” is undertheorized. Relevant for/to whom? Is a crucial question that needs to be addressed; but it is insufficient if posed in isolation from the issue of how the “whom” is to be understood.” Karen Barad, “Agential Literacy,” Doing Science + Culture, Routledge: New York, 2000.

  30. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance Theoretical elements: Continuity with the pupil’s past and future experiences. Interaction of the experience with particular individuals at a particular time. Teacher who leads the student in particular paths to achieve the growth and the interaction required. Openness to learning lets students look at a topic and think that meaning is something they value.

  31. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance Practical elements: Particular students: Attention to language, culture, and reflection on what something means to the individual. Mediator: Keeps students on task and away from making the experience “mere” entertainment. Materials: Address the students, support the mediator, and include assessment tools. Assessments: Make students responsible for knowing material in the context of the scenario.

  32. Chemistry Education Theory • Components of a theoretical approach • Learning theory and pedagogy—Relevance Practical elements: Particular students: Attention to language, culture, and reflection on what something means to the individual. Mediator: Keeps students on task and away from making the experience “mere” entertainment. Materials: Address the students, support the mediator, and include assessment tools. Assessments: Make students responsible for knowing material in the context of the scenario.

  33. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • Quantitative research: What is happening to chemistryknowledge? • Qualitative research: What do these findings mean?

  34. Chemistry Education Research Chemistry education research “Good research in chemistry education has features identical to features of good research in other areas of chemistry. Quality research in chemical education is theory based. It is based on data collected and analyzed by accepted protocols, and it produces generalizable results. The goal of research in chemical education is to enhance the transmission and understanding of chemistry.” D. Bunce & W. R. Robinson, J. Chem. Educ., 1997, 74, 1076-1079.

  35. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • What is happening to chemistry knowledge? • From UIC’s combined math / chemistry (“MATCH”) program:

  36. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • What is happening to chemistry knowledge? • Iron combines with oxygen and water from the air to form rust. If an iron nail were allowed to rust completely, one should find that the rust weighs: Pre Post(a) less than the nail it came from 336 283(b) the same as the nail it came from 90 108(c)* more than the nail it came from 460 498(d) It is impossible to predict. 39 37 • D. R. Mulford & W. R. Robinson, J. Chem. Educ., 2002, 79, 739-744.

  37. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • Qualitative research: What do these findings mean? • “To share their ideas and insights with each other, they first had to reorganize the material, come to an understanding of it, and then be able to express it in their own words. Oscar’s quote is a example of this struggle: “They [the Friday discussions] were good in that they ‘forced’ me to really try and understand the material on my own, and that I thought was really good.” • M. H. Towns and E. R. Grant, J. Res. Sci. Teach.1997, 34, 819-835.

  38. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • What is happening to chemistry knowledge? • 2157 students in organic chemistry, with and without peer-led team learning (PLTL). Samples matched demo-graphically and with respect to academic preparation. • “Workshop students earned an average grade of B/B, whereas control students earned an average grade of B/C-. A significant difference was observed for ethnicity (p<.01), as majority students outperformed underrepresented minority students, but not for gender (p=0.11).” • L. T. Tien, V. Roth, J. A. Kampmeier, J. Res. Sci. Teach.2002, 39, 606-632.

  39. Chemistry Education Research • Chemistry education research • What do these findings mean? • “Three common ideas emerged from the interviews and written assignments as keys to learning in the PLTL environment: (a) the Workshop as a community of learners, (b) negotiating meaning, and (c) acquiring expert thinking skills. These themes, coming from the peer leaders’ perspective, are consistent with the goals of the PLTL model.” • L. T. Tien, V. Roth, J. A. Kampmeier, J. Res. Sci. Teach.2002, 39, 606-632.

  40. Chemistry Education Careers / Training • Chemistry education career paths: K-12 teaching • Generally involves direct participation in teacher preparation programs, conventional or alternative. • K-5: Education courses + general education content6-8: Education courses + area of specialization unless the teacher is in a “self-contained” classroom.9-12: Education courses + equivalent of a disciplinary major (e.g. chemistry, mathematics). • All teachers must be qualified in literacy, technology, special education. • All HS science teachers must meet content requirements in all sciences.

  41. Chemistry Education Careers / Training • Chemistry education career paths: community colleges • Training at the Masters’ level expected, Ph.D. level often preferred but not absolutely. • Participation in independent teaching experience necessary. • Bench research portfolio less important.

  42. Chemistry Education Careers / Training • Chemistry education career paths: “chemistry educator” • Converts are trained in conventional bench chemistry and adopt or move into a chemistry education path. e. g. Wink (UIC), Holme (Wisc.-Milwaukee), Pienta (Iowa), Weaver (Purdue). • Direct education requires a graduate science or chemistry education degree. e.g. Lowery Bretz (Youngstown State), Greenbowe (Iowa State). • Hybrids get a graduate degree in science or chemistry education and in bench research. e.g. Towns (Ball State).

  43. Chemistry Education Careers / Training Chemistry education : ACS data “This increasing penetration by women into chemistry is far from uniform. By work specialty,it varies from 17.4% of those in organic chemistry to 34.5% of those in general chemistry and 41.7% of those in chemical education.” M. Heylin, C&E News, August 16, 2004.

  44. Chemistry Education Careers / Training Funding for chemistry education : NSF Programs Advanced Technological Education (ATE) promotes improvement in technological education at the undergraduate and secondary school levels with an emphasis on two-year colleges. Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) targets activities affecting learning environments, course content, curricula, and educational practices. Tracks include materials development and “adaptation and implementation” for materials and programs already developed elsewhere. http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/due/

  45. Chemistry Education Careers / Training Funding for chemistry education : NSF Programs Research Experience for Teachers (RET) programs support K-12 teachers in NSF-funded research laboratories. Can be site-based or arranged by an particular relationship between a teacher and a faculty member. Research Opportunity Awards (ROA) enable faculty members of predominantly undergraduate institutions to pursue research as visiting scientists with NSF-supported investigators at other institutions.

  46. Chemistry Education : Practice, Theory, Research Donald J. Wink Department of Chemistry (MC 111) University of Illinois at Chicago 845 W. Taylor Street Chicago, IL 60607 dwink@uic.edu