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Access and Inclusion in Sub Saharan Africa. Richard Rieser Disability Equality Inequalities in access to education.

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access and inclusion in sub saharan africa

Access and Inclusion in Sub Saharan Africa

Richard Rieser

Disability Equality

inequalities in access to education
Inequalities in access to education.
  • UNESCO[2006] identifies only 3% of disabled children as completing primary education in the South majority world; only 1% disabled girl children.
  • Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education by 2015 will not be reached unless disabled children are included.
  • Of 77-113 million children not in school as many as 40% are likely to be disabled more in the areas which are reaching a higher percentage attendance.
  • Fewer than 10% disabled children in Africa attend school.

“If we are to meet the 2015 goal, it is now time for Governments to work together to actively target the millions of marginalised disabled children currently missing out on a free quality education.

Moreover, from now on, the new paradigm of inclusive education must mark the institution of education, understanding that the traditional education system, as it was conceived and designed is not only opposed to diversity, but it works against the rights and interests of populations historically excluded.”

Vernor Munoz UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, Foreword Education’s Missing Millions 2007


Developing Inclusive Education: A Commonwealth Perspective

A guide to Implementing Article 24 of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities


1. Segregated education is based on viewing the problem in the child

Special’ education ‘Normal’ education

Special child Normal child

Square pegs for square holes Round pegs for round holes

Special teachers Normal teachers

Special schools Normal schools


Integrated education

Change the child to fit the system . System stays the same

Child must adapt or fail Make the square peg round


Inclusive Education

• Children are different

• All children can learn

• Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender

• Change the system to fit the child

article 24 un convention on rights of people with disabilities
Article 24 UN Convention on Rights of People with Disabilities
  • “All disabled children and young people can fully participate in the state education system and that this should be an ‘inclusive education system at all levels” [para 1]
  • “The development by persons with disabilities of their personality, talents and creativity, as well as their mental and physical abilities, to their fullest potential”[para.2 ]
  • “This right is to be delivered within an inclusive primary and secondary education system, from which disabled people should not be excluded.” [para.2 ]
  • Persons with disabilities receive the support required, within the general education system, to facilitate their effective education; 2d
  • Effective individualized support measures are provided in environments that maximize academic and social development, consistent with the goal of full inclusion.2e
analysis of fast track initiative of efa on including disabled children
Analysis of Fast :Track Initiative of EFA on including disabled children

Disability Responsive is:

  • Reflect international commitments;
  • Identify nos. disabled children and assess their needs;
  • Have strategies on key aspects of provision;
  • Develop capacity through scaling up and training;
  • Importance parental &community involvement;
  • Include appropriate and sufficient funding;
  • Address monitoring and evaluation

Analysis of Fast :Track Initiative of EFA on including disabled children

Education’s Missing Millions 2007 World Vision

example kenya
Example Kenya
  • Enrol more disabled students and widen range of impairments
  • 10% enrolment target SEN by 2010
  • 18,000 primary schools modified
  • 1,100 given equipment
  • 110 special schools equipped with flexible curriculum
  • 25,000 teacher and 456 officials trained
  • Awareness campaigns
  • Targeted funding inclusive schools
  • Specific budgets-training, surveys awareness etc
ethiopia 2007
Ethiopia 2007
  • Not address disability early on
  • New SNE policy focus on:-
  • Teacher training-lack of knowledge
  • Development of support centres
  • Federal guidance addressing non-participation
  • 6,000 disabled children out of 15million access to primary education mainly in 20 special schools and 130 regular schools
  • Disabled students said few adjustments, but included socially.
  • Parental involvement very limited
some non fti african countries
Some NON FTI African Countries
  • South Africa White Paper No 6, but apart from several hundred pilot schools it is not being rolled out. 300,000 remain out of school.
  • Uganda Since 1992 have had programmes. Support through a cluster scheme. More disabled children attending. Teacher report lack of capacity. Special schools becoming resource centres.
  • Tanzania committed to 20% enrolment disabled children by 2010
  • Zambia 1996 with donor support an inclusive education programme in several provinces.
what needs to be done
What needs to be done !
  • Pressure on Governments and International Donors Inclusion
  • Focus on good practice often in NGO projects share(DVD) and scale up
  • Much greater emphasis on early identification CBR and local health workers. Increase Early Years provision.
  • Training to develop paradigm shift for administrators, teachers and families
  • Transform and build accessible school buildings
  • Make inclusive education mandatory in all teacher training
  • In-service training for all teachers
  • Involve Disabled Peoples Organisations. Empower disabled children
  • Develop inclusion experts in each district to support mainstream schools
  • Develop and make equipment in Africa.
  • Run disability equality awareness in media.