33-2 Communists Take Power in China After World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge.
Communists vs. Nationalists • World War II in China • Mao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invaders • Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)—leads of Chinese Nationalists in WWII • Nationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends
Communists vs. Nationalists Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek) Mao Zedong
Communists vs. Nationalists • Civil War Resumes • Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to Communists • Mao’s troops take control of China’s major cities • In 1949, People’s Republic of China is created • Nationalists flee to Taiwan
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War • The Superpowers React • U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China • Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack • U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War • China Expands under the Communists • China takes control of Tibet and southern Mongolia • India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chinese • China and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain
The Communists Transform China • Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven” • Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist Party • Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism • Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants • Government seizes private companies and plans production increase
The Communists Transform China • The Great Leap Forward • Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people • Program is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines
The Communists Transform China • New Policies and Mao’s Response • China and Soviet Union clash over leadership of communist movement • Strict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in government • Red Guards—militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China
The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.
Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
The Communists Transform China • The Cultural Revolution • Cultural Revolution—movement to build society of peasants and workers • Red Guards—groups of violent and radical youth—close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals • In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.” • However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976.
Gang of Four • After Mao’s death, the Gang of Four—the radical group that controlled the power organs of the Chinese Communist Party throughout the Cultural Revolution—is arrested and judged responsible for the excesses and chaos that occurred in China as a result of this revolution.
35-5 China: Reform and Reaction In response to contact with the West, China’s government has experimented with capitalism but has rejected calls for democracy.
The Legacy of Mao • Problems of Mao’s Rule • Mao Zedong wants to improve China’s economy, but cannot • Mao’s policies, a lack of modern technology prevent economic growth • He launches Cultural Revolution in 1960s to revive Communist split. • Its excesses turn many people against communism. • Zhou Enlai-leader in early 1970s-pursues moderate policies.
China and the West • China Opened Its Doors • Zhou worries that China is too isolated from rest of world • In 1971, U.S. and China begin closer relations
Economic Reform • In 1976, Mao and Zhou die; moderates take control of Communist Party • Deng Xiaoping-becomes leader of China by 1980 • Four Modernization-Deng’s plan for economic progress • This policy reverses strict Communist policies long backed by Mao
Massacre in Tiananmen Square • Unforeseen Problems • Reforms lead to some unrest over privileges of Communist leaders • Western political ideas enter China, encouraging democracy • Students Demand Democracy • In 1989, students protest in Tiananmen Square-public area in Beijing
Deng Orders a Crackdown • Deng orders army to surround square, attack protestors • Attack leaves hundreds dead, thousands wounded • Government begins large-scale campaign to end dissent
China Enters New Millennium • China Under Jiang • In 1997, Deng dies; Jiang Zemin takes power • Hard liners want Jiang to move away from Deng’s reforms • In 2002, Jiang steps down in favor of Zhu Rongji • Both Jiang and Zhu favor continued reforms
Zhu Rongji Jiang Zemin Hu Jintao
Transfer of Hong Kong • Hong Kong-former British colony, city in China, major economic power • In 1997, Britain hands Hong Kong back to China
China Beyond 2000 • Economics and Politics • Economic reforms reduce poverty in China • Though many countries have economic problems, China’s economy grows • Many in China want political reforms • China is becoming more involved with other countries