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Session 1: The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster. This session will introduce the concept of natural hazards and disasters at the coast through the example of the recent tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean.

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slide1

Session 1:

The 2004

Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster

This session will introduce the concept of natural hazards and disasters at the coast through the example of the recent tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean.

(Source: NASA Earth Observatory; aerial photo of Kalutara Beach, Sri Lanka on 12/26/04)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 1, Lecture Outline

slide2

Introduction: Natural Hazards in the Coastal Zone

Coastal Hazards can be defined as natural hazards that occur within the coastal zone. The hazards discussed in this course can happen in the coastal zone, but occur in other locations as well.

A disaster is when a natural hazard clashes with humans and development.

The Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster of December 26, 2004 will be discussed in this session.

(Source: http://sunsite.nus.edu.sg/asiasvc.html)

(Source:http://homepage.mac.com/demark/tsunami/2.html)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 2, Introduction

slide3

The Setting – Natural Environment I

(Source:http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~small/Pop/HypsoDemo/S.E.Asia.html)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 3, The Setting

the setting natural environment ii
The Setting – Natural Environment II

(Source: USGS)

To see significant ridges in the Indian Ocean:

http://ace.acadiau.ca/science/geol/rraeside/quizzes/worldmap3i.htm

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 4, The Natural Hazard

slide5

The Natural Hazard – What is a Tsunami?

To see a visual representation of tsunami generation, follow this weblink:

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/645fall2003_web.dir/elena_suleimani/generation_small.mov

(Source:http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/davis/inprogress/QuakesEng3.html)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 5, The Natural Hazard

slide6

The Natural Hazard – How it Happened

http://es.ucsc.edu/~ward/indo.mov

http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/world/04/tsunami/swf/tsunami.swf?path=/nol/shared/spl/hi/world/04/tsunami/

Use the links provided above to watch simulations of tsunamis.

The tsunami of December 26, 2004 is believed to have been caused by a 9.0-9.3 magnitude earthquake, have a wave height of up to 10 meters, and inundated land up to 2 kilometers from the shoreline in some areas.

(Source: NOAA)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 6, The Natural Hazard

slide7

The Disaster – Where it Happened

http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,5860,1380592,00.html

Follow this link to see a NOAA slide show giving a timeline with places hit by the tsunami

(Source: www.reliefweb.int)

The tsunami struck a number of countries and took from 15 minutes to seven hours to reach the different coastlines.

(Source:http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/tsunami.disaster/ )

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 7, The Disaster

slide8

The Disaster – Human Loss

(Source: CNN; http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/tsunami.disaster/)

Animation Example of run-up and its effects on the built environment:

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/645fall2003_web.dir/elena_suleimani/runup4.mov

This animation makes it possible to see how people and property could easily be swept out to the open ocean, with devastating effects.

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 8, The Disaster

slide9

The Disaster – Property Loss

(Source: NASA Earth Observatory)

Before and after satellite images of the damage

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 9, The Disaster

slide10

The Disaster – Economic Loss

The impact on coastal fishing communities and fishermen has been devastating with high losses of income earners as well as boats and fishing gear

(Source:http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/tsunami.disaster/)

The Sri Lankan Ministry of Labour and Employment has estimated that as many as 800,000 people lost their jobs due to the tsunami.

(Source: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/tsunami/srilanka.cfm)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 10, The Disaster

slide11

The Setting – Socio-Political Environment

(Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake_-_affected_countries.png)

(Source:http://www.washcoll.edu/wc/news/press_releases/images/tsunami_map.gif)

The countries most influenced by the tsunami include: Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, India, & Sri Lanka

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 11, The Setting

slide12

The Setting – Built Environment

Tourist Hotels contribute a large amount of development to the built environment in the coastal zones of the Indian Ocean, in sharp contrast with the housing available to residents in this very poor region.

Tourism, along with agriculture and fishing are the major industries driving the economies of Southeast Asia.

May 18, 1980

(Source:http://tourism.gov.my/statistic/hotels_rooms_supply.asp)

Supply of hotels in the states of Malaysia

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 12, The Setting

slide13

Recovery Efforts

(Source:http://www.washcoll.edu/wc/news/press_releases/05_01_04_tsunami.html)

(Source:http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4500992)

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanitarian_response_to_the_2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake)

The plight of the many affected people and countries prompted a widespread humanitarian response

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 13, Recovery Efforts

slide14

Reconstruction Efforts I

Source:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d2/TsunamiAftermathNorthofPhuket_NASA.jpg)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 14, Reconstruction Efforts

slide15

Reconstruction Efforts II

(Source:http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4500992)

(Source:http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20525827~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html)

Session 1: The 2004 Tsunami Disaster

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 1. 15, Reconstruction Efforts