Unit III – Chapter 4. Natural hazards and Disasters. Floods Earthquakes Hurricanes Tornadoes Volcanoes Tsunamis Avalanches. What are they?. Aspects of physical world that have potential to cause considerable harm to people a dormant volcano. What is a Natural hazard? .
Aspects of physical world that have potential to cause considerable harm to people
When a natural hazard is activated and reacts in such a way as humans and/or communities are destroyedWhat is a natural disaster?
Poorer countries with less solid infrastructure
More difficult for poorer countries (LCD and LLCD) to react quickly and compensate for lossWhy are Natural Disasters taking a heavier toll these days?
An event that has long term effects (for many years)
An event that causes permanent damage or serious contamination of the natural environmentWhat is a global hazard?
normal weather patterns develop because of differences in air masses
Prevailing winds shift these air masses
When two air masses collide a sharp boundary called a front forms
Rotating low pressure areas, or cells form along storm front
Depending on how different the air masses are influences the types of storm that will developCyclonic storms
Develop as the result of high temperatures and large amounts of water vapour
Develop over oceans and follow curved storm paths
Moved by prevailing winds and the Coriolis effect
Usually hit land where they cause significant destructionTropical cyclones
Dry weather conditions, high winds, large forests are ideal conditions for wildfiresWildfire
Millions of deaths attributed to infectious or parasitic diseases
In 2008 - 164 000 measles deaths globally – nearly 450 deaths/day or 18 deaths/hour
Measles vaccination (up 72% from 2000) resulted in a 78% drop in measles deaths between 2000 and 2008 worldwide
LDCs and LLDCs – 95% of deathsMeasles
By the end of 2008 - 33.4 million people worldwide were living with HIV
2 million people died of AIDS-related illnesses.
Globally, less than 1 in 5 at risk of HIV has access to basic HIV prevention services.
Only 36% of people who needed HIV treatment had access to it by end of 2009
2010 report – significant progress is being madeHIV
HIV/AIDS progress report from 144 low- and middle-income countries in 2009:
15 countries, including Botswana, Guyana and South Africa, were able to treat more than 80% of HIV-positive pregnant women
14 countries, including Brazil, Namibia and Ukraine, provided HIV treatment to more than 80% of HIV-positive children
8 countries, including Cambodia, Cuba and Rwanda, have achieved universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults.
140 million African people are at risk
caused by a parasitical worm, onchocercavolvulus.
The worm larvae are spread by the black simulium fly, which breeds in the high-oxygen water of fast-flowing rivers.
fly transmits disease when it bites people, making those who live or work near the rivers vulnerable.
Treatment - Mectizan®.River Blindness
reducing # of flies by spraying affected areas with insecticide
slowing fast-flowing rivers, making them unattractive as breeding grounds
reducing exposure to flies by using protective garments
killing the adult worms by removing the worm 'nodules' - difficult because infected villages are often very remote and poor, making accessible surgery difficult.
providing a yearly dose of the drug Mectizan® in affected areas.
Problems with medication
Needs to be administered regularly and communally
Slow – lots of warning
Well known volcanoes – Mt. Vesuvius (Pompeii), Mt. St. Helens (Washington State), Eyjafjallajökull(Iceland)
Hawaii has daily volcanic activity
Iceland has harnessed geothermal energy for heating and electricity generationVolcanoes
Combination of geological factors + triggering event like heavy rain or earthquake or human effect – deforestation, clearcutting
Avalanches – rapid movement of snow and iceSlides and Avalanches
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/plants-gardening/plants/plant/photosynthesis.jpg, retrieved March 1, 2010
http://www.allaboutgemstones.com/rock_cycle.html retrieved March 3, 2010
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth March 3
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Tide&FORM=BIFD#focal=c753352f665971332d781ca13addc07e&furl=http%3A%2F%2Flibrary.thinkquest.org%2FC003124%2Fimages%2Ftides.jpg March 3
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/science_up_close/314/deploy/interface.html March 3
file:///H:\My%20Pictures\Hurricane_formation.gif retrieved March 11
file:///H:\My%20Pictures\flappy_tornado_formation.jpg retrieved March 11
National Geographic websitesreferences