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Thematic Essay Review

Thematic Essay Review

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Thematic Essay Review

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  1. Thematic Essay Review Global History and geography

  2. Mohandas Gandhi (also suitable for turning point essay, change) • Indian independence and nationalist leader • GOALS: achieve independence of India (end British rule), Hindus and Muslims together, end discrimination based upon caste and untouchability • METHODS: leader of INC, used non-violent protests/demonstrations, civil disobedience (boycotts, hunger strikes, homespun movement, Salt March) • 1947 – India achieves independence but the subcontinent is partitioned (India and Pakistan), new Constitution creates democracy where discrimination based on caste is discouraged and untouchability is outlawed • Gandhi is assassinated by Hindu fanatic • Influenced leaders like Dr. Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela to use civil disobedience and non-violent means to bring about change

  3. Nelson Mandela and Apartheid (leader, human rights abuse, turning point) • Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in a South African prison (Robben Island) because of his efforts to end Apartheid in S. Africa • Leader of the African National Congress (ANC) • Would not rule out violence as a means to ending this unjust system • Advocated for the use of civil disobedience • What is Apartheid? • Rigid segregation of people based upon race (whites, blacks, coloureds, Asian) • Whites had all the privileges while blacks had it the worst and were the vast majority • Homelands (Bantustans), pass laws, inequity in services • Protests from within and economic sanctions helped to bring system to an end (1980s) • Mandela released from prison in 1990 • Blacks could vote for the 1st time in S. Africa 1994 • Mandela elected 1st Black President of the Republic of South Africa

  4. Adolf Hitler (leader, human rights abuse, conflict- WWII) • Rose to power in Germany in 1933 during Great Depression • Anti-semitism, extreme nationalism, militarism • Promises to repeal Treaty of Versailles and return Germany to past greatness • Jews were scapegoated, use of propaganda, created totalitarian state • Builds up military, invades/takes over Austria, Czechoslovakia in 1938 • Invades Poland (immediate cause of WWII) – over 50 million die • Holocaust – nearly 11 million killed – 6 million Jews • Nuremberg Trials after war

  5. Geography - mountains • Serve as barriers stopping migration, invasion, conquest • may also limit cultural diffusion and make achieving political unity difficult • Examples: Himalayas (tallest range) effectively separates India from China, allowing India to develop its own unique culture • Mountains also make farming/agriculture difficult • Rocky soil and erosion • Japan has also used terrace farming to support their civilization

  6. Northern European Plain • Vast plain that cuts across Northern Europe (France, Low Countries, Germany, Poland) • Fertile land – great for farming • Lack of natural barriers may leave a country vulnerable to invasion • France – Franco-Prussian War, WWI, WWII • Poland – WWII

  7. Island location • Great Britain • Defensive advantages • Isolate from problems of Europe • Develop superior navy • Commerce • Japan • Defensive advantages • Isolate from problems of rest of Asia • Turns to seas for food source • Fishing industry, commerce

  8. Sahara Desert • Northern Africa • World’s largest desert • Effective barrier separating North Africa from sub-Saharan Africa • North Africa culturally more similar to the Middle East than the rest of Africa • Islam, Arabic language

  9. Conflict – World War I • Causes – think MANIA • Immediate cause: assassination of Franz Ferdinand • Describe type of warfare – trench warfare • Total war • Effects • Russian Revolution • Treaty of Versailles – punishes Germany and her allies • Political, economic, social instability • Rise of Totalitarian regimes • Over 10 million dead

  10. Conflict – World War II • Causes • Treaty of Versailles • Extreme nationalism (totalitarian regimes) • Militarism and expansionism (Germany, Italy, and Japan) • Immediate Cause • Invasion of Poland • Describe War including two sides (Allies and Axis nations) • Effects • Ushers in a nuclear age • Over 50 million dead • Nuremberg Trials • Formation of the United Nations

  11. CONFLICT: COLD WAR (1945-1991) • COLD WAR – US v USSR • Increased tensions/competition/hostilities between two superpowers following the end of WWII (non-conventional war; did not fight each other directly) • Nuclear arms race, space race, territories around the globe • NATO v. Warsaw Pact • Cold War conflicts include Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnamese War, Arab-Israeli conflict • “Peaceful coexistence” – Khrushchev • “Détente” – Brezhnev • Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan – 1980s • Berlin War comes down – 1989 • Poor economy plays role in collapse of communism • Eastern European countries pull out of communist bloc • Gorbachev ousted in 1991 – end of Cold War

  12. REVOLUTIONS/TURNING POINTS: FRENCH REVOLUTION • French Revolution – 1789 • Long term causes • Glorious Revolutions and American Revolution • Enlightenment principles • Economic problems and unfair social class system ( 3 estates) • Lack of representation in government • Immediate Cause – Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) • Key events: Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, new constitution, Reign of Terror, execution of King and Queen, Rise of Napoleon • Effects • Napoleon, Napoleonic Code of Law (equal treatment under the law), abolish feudal privileges, Napoleonic Wars • Nationalism and liberalism on the rise • Rise of middle class

  13. REVOLUTIONS OR TURNING POINTS: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • WHO WAS FIRST AND WHY? Great Britain, natural resources, capital, work force, government, inventions/innovations • INDUSTRY FIRST TO INDUSTRIALIZE? Textiles • FACTORY SYSTEM (DESCRIBE ABUSES) long hours, low pay, child labor, sweat shops • EFFECTS • RISE OF UNIONS • RISE OF MIDDLE CLASS • URBANIZATION • NEW ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM • MORE DEADLY WEAPONS

  14. REVOLUTIONS/TURNING POINTS: New Economic Imperialism • New Economic Imperialism (late 1800s) • Define: • Causes – since Europeans had industrialized needed: • Markets • Raw materials • Spread culture • Where? (Africa, India, China, SE Asia) • Scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference, White Man’s Burden, Sepoy Rebellion, Opium War, Spheres of Influence • Effects (Help/Hindrance)

  15. REVOLUTIONS/TURNING POINTS: RUSSIAN REVOLUTION • Russian Revolution – 1917 • Causes: unfair social class system, poor economy, lack of representation in government, spread of Marxist ideology • Immediate cause: unpopularity of WWI • Lenin’s role – leader of the Bolsheviks (Communists) • “Peace, Land, Bread” – gain support of veterans, peasants, and working class • Effects: Tsarist Russia comes to an end, Royal family is executed by Communists, Russia becomes the world’s first Communist State • Lenin dies in 1920s and Josef Stalin becomes leader • Stalin transforms Russia into a totalitarian state • Chief U.S. adversary during Cold War

  16. World Problems - Overpopulation • China and/or India • Causes: modernization (life expectancy increases/infant mortality decreases) combined with traditional mindset regarding family size, rapid urbanization • Effects: strain on country’s limited resources, poverty, overcrowded cities, housing shortages, food shortages, pollution • Solutions: limit family size (planned parenting, birth control), China’s use of one child per family policy (now 2 children)

  17. Human Rights Abuses • Tiananmen Square Massacre(China – June 1989) • Cause: students peacefully protesting for democratization • Effect: Deng Xiaoping crushes protest killing over 1000 unarmed demonstrators • Solutions: should nations impose trade sanctions on nations that violate human rights

  18. Human Rights Abuses • One-child-per-family policy (China) • Cause: radical policy to achieve zero-population growth • Enforcement: harsh economic penalties/fines/taxes/loss of benefits for families that have more than one child • Effects: traditional Chinese families abandon and/or kill baby girls so that the one child is male, infanticide, overcrowded orphanages, disproportionate population( more males than females) Chinese government has claimed to have ended the policy • Human rights groups still critical

  19. Human Rights Abuses: Rwandan Genocide • 1994– Rwanda – Hutus v. Tutsis • Rwanda had been a colony of Belgium • Minority Tutsis were favored while the majority Hutus were basically enslaved • Tremendous resentment – tribalism • Two groups forced to share independent Rwanda – Civil War by 1990 • 1994 - Tensions boil over after Tutsi rebels shoot down plane carrying the Hutu Rwanda President • Hutus leaders call for a genocide of Tutsis – use radio to spread hate and urge people to slaughter their neighbors • 800,000 killed in just 3 months • Genocide ends when Tutsi rebels (RPF) take over the country; Hutus flee to neighboring countries as refugees • U.S. did not intervene under President Clinton; did not view as part of U.S. national security interest

  20. Religions - Hinduism • India • Polytheistic, oldest major world religion (over 6000 years old) • Reincarnation • Caste system (Brahmin, Kshatriya,Vaishya, Sudra) • Dharma, karma • Effects: Lack of social mobility, rigid social class system, discrimination, mistreatment of untouchables (harijans) • Today: illegal to discriminate in jobs, housing, unemployment based upon caste, untouchability is banned, clash with India’s religious minorities (Muslims and Sikhs)

  21. Religions - Islam • Middle East, Pakistan, northern India, Afghanistan • Founder- Mohammad (Seal of the Prophets) • Monotheistic – Allah, Koran, Mosque • Roots in Judaism and Christianity • 5 Pillars Faith • Recital of words: “there is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet” • Prayer 5 times a day • Charity • Fasting during Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca • Today: Arab-Israeli conflict, partition of India and Pakistan, fundamentalism, Sunni v. Shi’ite, global war on terror