“Inventing the Future” & Basic Electronics • Storytelling alternatives • Triggers of innovation • Communications and rate of change • Power = voltage x current • AC vs DC • Transformer • Vacuum tubes • Solid state electronics
Burk’s Eight Primary Technological Developments • Nuclear power • Telecommunications • Computer • Assembly line • Jet engine/Air Transport • Plastics/Synthetic polymers • Liquid fuel rockets • Television
Storytelling Alternatives • Heroic treatment of history • Thematic treatment of history • Periodic treatment of history
Heroic Treatment of History • Assesses history based on special persons • However, no individual is responsible for an invention. • Denies involvement of humbler members of society whose contributions made the inventor successful.
Thematic Treatment of History • Based on subjects such as computers, telecommunication, etc. • However, this neglects the interrelation of different subjects. • Naively implies a degree of foreknowledge.
Periodic Treatment of History • Chronological approach to history based on definite time periods • Oversimplified • Developments do not normally occur in linear fashion.
Triggers of Innovation • Deliberate attempts • Unexpected discovery • Unrelated developments • War and Religion • Accidents & unforeseen circumstances • Weather
Deliberate attempts to develop • Soc. For the Encouragement of Nat’l Ind. • The electric light bulb • Kinetoscope • Von Linde’s refrigeration system
Unexpected discovery through experimentation • Looking for one thing and finding something new. • Perkin’s synthetic dye or Guericke’s electricity • Oersted’s unexpected electromagnet • Moissan’s calcium carbide fertilizer, acetylene
Unrelated Developments (“Connections”) • New technology from old technology • Pegged cylinder Bouchon’s perforated paper programming the computer • Weaving tech. cheap linen paper • Wilson’s cloud chamber splitting the atom
War and Religion • Cannon Defensive Architecture, map making • The need for timely praying alarm clock
Accidents & Unforeseen Circumstances • Decline of acetylene market cheap fertilizer • Explosion of the Earl’s coal kiln coal gas • Compass needle from China magnetism • Failure to pump mines barometer
Physical and Climate Conditions • “Little Ice Age” chimney • malaria ice making machine • Reclamation of Europe modern plough
Summarizing • No inventor works alone • Rate of technology change is proportional to rate of information exchange (communication) • Medieval Ind. Revolution • 17th century specialization/democratization of knowledge via printing press • 19th century telecommunications • 20th century digital telecommunications
Burke’s Alternatives to Cope with Increasing Rate of Change? • Scrap all technology and go rural. • Selective research only. • Stop R&D and share out existing technology • Keep going the way have.
Stop, scrap advanced technology – “Go Rural.” • Many would not survive. • This scenario is highly unlikely. • USA’s technology developments are most responsible for its wealth and world leadership.
Selective research only • Assess science and technology strictly according to it societal worth. • Curtail other “unworthy” research. • Who decides where to focus efforts? • Nevertheless, governments do provide some tax incentives & subsidies to selectively stimulate development.
Share out existing technology to 3rd world countries. • Produce more durable goods & less planned obsolescence. • How do you convince the haves that they have had enough? • Who’s going to pay for this transfer? • This does go on where private industry seeks advantage to sharing technology. • Investments into China, India, E. Europe, etc.
Keep going the way we always have. • The most likely and probable scenario.
“Science and technology has immeasurably enriched our material lives”. James Burke
Alternating Current vs. Direct • Alternating current (AC) is generated at the power plant • USA voltage fluctuates 60 cycles per second (hertz) between + & - extremes as a sine wave. Europe 50 hertz. • Direct current (DC) comes from a battery, fuel cell or solar cell and does not fluctuate.
Why AC & Not DC • Large electrical generators happen to generate AC. • Transformers must have AC to work. • Its easy to change AC to DC but difficult and costly to change DC to AC.
Electricity • Power = current x voltage watts = amps x volts • Using the analogy of a garden hose: • Voltage is like the water pressure • Current is like the amount of water delivered. • Resistance (ohms) = volts/amps • Resistance is inversely proportional to the hose or wire diameter.
Advantages of High Voltage • Powerloss = resistance x current2 • Since voltage and current are inversely proportional high voltage gets lower current thus less power loss through the power grid. • AC has the advantage over DC in that its voltage and current are easily modified with little power loss.
Transformer • Increases or decreases alternating current • Transmission of high voltage AC results in lower power loss than low voltage. • With a transformer AC voltage can be increased/decreased with < 1% power loss • Power = current x voltage • Combination of Oersted and Faraday effect. • # coil turns is proportional to magnetic field & volts
AC Transformer High Voltage 10,000 v Street voltage 1100 v Vin x Nout/Nin = Vout Your house 110 v
AC Transformer Vin x Nout/Nin = Vout 110v x 10/5 = 220v Now flowing in the opposite direction 220v x 5/10 = 110v
Westinghouse vs. Edison • Tesla argued for AC power grid. • Edison argued for DC power grid. • Electrocuted animals with AC to demonstrate its dangers. • Triggered the electric chair • Tesla/Westinghouse won.
Vacuum Tube • Two electrode vacuum tube is a diode • The two electrodes control flow of current. • Hot cathode, emits electrons • Anode, accepts electrons • Three electrode tube is triode. • Used as electrode switch or amplifier in radios. • Third electrode in triode is a grid controlling electron flow to the anode.
Rectifier • Allows current flow in one direction only. • Diode used to convert AC to DC. • Diode used to filter out carrier signal in radio transmissions.
Transistor • Solid state replacement of vacuum tube in the 1960s. • Boron or Arsenic doped Silicon or Germanium junctions. • Smaller, lighter, rugged, longer life, more efficient and cheaper than vacuum tubes. • Ultimately replaced by the Integrated Circuit. • Making an IC
Silicon • Silicon comprises about 15% of our planet Earth. • Normally found as silicates. • It is a metaloid element exhibiting some metalic and some nonmetallic qualities. • Si has 4 valence electrons like Carbon and other elements in its group.
Solid State Diodes • Silicon can be doped with other elements to affect it conductivity. • P and As have an extra valence electron while Boron has a vacant valence orbital. • Current will flow from N side to the P side not the reverse. • N side is cathode and P side is anode. Boron doped side is electron deficient Arsenic doped side is electron rich In reverse biased no current flows
Moore’s Law • Gordon Moore (Intel) stated in 1965 that the number of transistors on a chip could double every 24 months. • Since then his statement has become the benchmark for the industry.
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) • These are solid state lights. • Electrons from the higher energy N side drop at the junction to lower energy p side. • Giving off the energy as light particles (photons).
Lasers • "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation” • Emits light with spatial coherence • Semiconductor lasers
Fossil Fuels • Petroleum, coal and gas. The U.S. is very dependant these fuel sources. • Coal comes from anaerobic decomposition of plant material • Petroleum (oil) comes from anaerobic decomposition of marine life. • Natural gas comes from both.
Acid Rain • Industrial production of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides beyond the levels which nature can consume is pollution. • Acid rain is caused by sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the air. These kill plants and fresh water marine animals.
Major technological developments according to Burke The six triggers of innovation and examples of each. Explain why rate of innovation is proportional to rate of information exchange. What are Burke’s ideas to cope with the increasing rate technology change. #2 #7-13 #14 information exchange is directly proportional to innovation. #15-19 What you should know
How a transformer works 1000 volts and 2 amps enters a transformer with 10 coils and exits with 20 coils. What is the exit voltage and amperage? How does the wattage change? What does a diode do and how does it work? Explain the vacuum tube and transistor. Explain what a triode is, how it works and what it may be used for in electronic equipment. #26-28 #26-28 #30-35 #30 & 32 What you should know
What is the difference between direct and alternating current? Why AC, not DC is used to transmit electricity over high voltage lines. What is Acid Rain? Which side of the LED may be doped with phosphorus? #33 and lecture notes. AC is double polarity (sine wave) and DC is one polarity. AC voltage exits the generator and its voltage is easily and efficiently changed. #40 The N side #36 What you should know