APES Quarter 3 Test Review. Question 1. What is meant by total fertility rate? How is this different from replacement level fertility ?
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Calculate the percent increase of a population of 1,000,000 (1million) that experiences 200,000 births, 10,000 immigrants, 50,000 deaths and 20,000 emigrants. (Hint: this is not the percent natural increase for the population).
How is an indicator species different from a keystone species?
Give an example of each.
Indicator species (trout, song birds, amphibians) is sensitive to changes in the environment; keystone species (alligator, sea otter, gopher tortoise) is extremely valuable to other members of its ecosystem because it performs a special function that others need.
Explain how mutations, adaptations, natural selection, and evolution are linked.
Mutations create new traits and characteristics which enable organisms to adapt to changes in their environment. Those that are successful will survive and pass on their genes (natural selection) and eventually the population will evolve with new characteristics.
How are the processes of nuclear fission and burning of coal to generate electricity similar?
Both heat water to steam to turn a turbine and generate electricity.
How are they different? Coal is more efficient. Coal is burned in a furnace. Nuclear fission requires the use of uranium and a complex series of steps to heat water to steam. Coal produces more air and water pollutants; nuclear has left over radioactive wastes.
Explain the concept of energy efficiency in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. First law says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but the second law says than due to entropy, it can be degraded into less useful and efficient forms. Nothing is 100% efficient.
What are the relative efficiencies of burning coal to nuclear fission? About 25-30% for nuclear; 30-40% for coal
What is the main component of natural gas? methane
How does the use of natural gas potentially release two greenhouse gases into the atmosphere? Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and methane release from pipes carrying natural gas is also a greenhouse gas.