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APES Quarter 3 Test Review. Question 1. What is meant by total fertility rate? How is this different from replacement level fertility ?

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question 1
Question 1
  • What is meant by total fertility rate?
  • How is this different from replacement level fertility?
  • Total fertility rate is the average number of children a women will have in her lifetime. Replacement level fertility is the average number of children needed to replace a couple in a population.
question 2
Question 2
  • What is the first to show a decrease in the demographic transition?
  • In what stage does this occur?
  • Death rate in stage 2
question 3
Question 3
  • Which form of coal has a high heat content, but also a high sulfur content?
  • What can a high sulfur content result in?
  • Bituminous. It produces SOx which leads to acid rain.
question 4
Question 4
  • What would the “pyramid” look like for a population undergoing rapid population increase?
  • How would this be different from one that is showing a slow growth?
  • Rapid growth has wide based pyramid representing high percentage of population under 15. Slow growth is not as wide, but still wider than the top.
question 5
Question 5
  • What are the two most useful indicators of a country’s health?
  • Why?
  • Life expectancy and infant mortality rate. The higher the life expectancy and lower infant mortality rate, indicates less disease and poverty.
question 6
Question 6
  • What are 5 characteristics of an r-strategist?
  • How would this compare to a K-strategist?
  • Give an example of each.
  • r-strategist: small adult, little parental care, early reproductive age, lots of offspring, short generation times, adaptable, etc.
  • K- strategist is opposite
  • Whale, panda, wolf – K
  • Insects, rats, bacteria - r
question 7
Question 7
  • Calculate the percent increase of a population of 1,000,000 (1million) that experiences 200,000 births, 10,000 immigrants, 50,000 deaths and 20,000 emigrants. (Hint: this is not the percent natural increase for the population).
  • Show your work.
  • (births + immigrants)-(deaths + emigrants) x 100

population

14%

question 8
Question 8
  • How is an indicator species different from a keystone species?
  • Give an example of each.
  • Indicator species (trout, song birds, amphibians) is sensitive to changes in the environment; keystone species (alligator, sea otter, gopher tortoise) is extremely valuable to other members of its ecosystem because it performs a special function that others need.
question 9
Question 9
  • What kind of relationship does an epiphyte, lichen or moss have with a tree? commensalism
  • What is the relationship between a hummingbird and a flower? mutualism
question 10
Question 10
  • What are the reactants in aerobic respiration?
  • Glucose and oxygen  carbon dioxide and water
  • What are the products of photosynthesis?
  • Carbon dioxide and water  glucose and oxygen
question 11
Question 11
  • Explain a range of tolerance graph. You may use a diagram, but you must describe in words what is happening.
question 12
Question 12
  • What are two methods that species have evolved to reduce competition between them?
  • Resource partitioning (RP) and character displacement (CD)
  • Use these concepts to explain the long necks of a giraffe.
  • Giraffe ancestors began using different parts of the tree (RP) and over time those that survived slowly developed different characteristics (CD)
question 13
Question 13
  • How is primary succession different from secondary succession? Primary starts without soil and has pioneer species move in first to break down soil.
  • Give an example of something that might exhibit secondary succession. An abandoned field.
question 14
Question 14
  • In what year would a population of 10,000 double, if its current rate of growth is 3.5%
  • Doubling time = 70/ % growth rate
  • 70/3.5 = 20 years so in 2033
  • How many years would it take for the population to reach 80,000?
  • 10,000 20,00040,00080,000
    • 20 x 3 = 60 years
question 15
Question 15
  • Explain the difference between a generalist and a specialist. Generalist is very adaptable, not picky about its habits; specialist only eats certain types of food, mates at certain times of year, etc.
  • Which is more likely to become endangered and why? Specialist – because it is not very adaptable
question 16
Question 16
  • Explain how mutations, adaptations, natural selection, and evolution are linked.
  • Mutations create new traits and characteristics which enable organisms to adapt to changes in their environment. Those that are successful will survive and pass on their genes (natural selection) and eventually the population will evolve with new characteristics.
question 17
Question 17
  • How are the processes of nuclear fission and burning of coal to generate electricity similar?
  • Both heat water to steam to turn a turbine and generate electricity.
  • How are they different? Coal is more efficient. Coal is burned in a furnace. Nuclear fission requires the use of uranium and a complex series of steps to heat water to steam. Coal produces more air and water pollutants; nuclear has left over radioactive wastes.
question 18
Question 18
  • Explain the concept of energy efficiency in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. First law says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but the second law says than due to entropy, it can be degraded into less useful and efficient forms. Nothing is 100% efficient.
  • What are the relative efficiencies of burning coal to nuclear fission? About 25-30% for nuclear; 30-40% for coal
question 19
Question 19
  • What is the main component of natural gas? methane
  • How does the use of natural gas potentially release two greenhouse gases into the atmosphere? Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and methane release from pipes carrying natural gas is also a greenhouse gas.
  • Why is it the cleanest source of fossil fuel?
  • Few emissions of particulates, SOx and NOx.
  • Less CO2 than other fossil fuels.
question 20
Question 20
  • What are three disadvantages to the burning of coal as an energy source?
    • Releases mercury
    • Releases SOx acid rain
    • Releases CO2 – a greenhouse gas
    • etc.
  • What are 3 disadvantages of mining for coal?
    • Acid mine drainage
    • Disturbs lots of land
    • Air pollution from smelting of ore
    • Etc.
question 21
Question 21
  • What are three disadvantages of nuclear power? Nuclear waste, expensive to build and maintain, threats of terrorism, etc.
  • Why have no new nuclear plants been built since 1977? Scared after Three Mile Island, expensive to build and maintain
question 22
Question 22
  • What are the components of oil sands? Water, sand, bitumen, clay, silt.
  • Where are the majority of oil sands found? Canada
question 23
Question 23
  • Calculate the half life of a substance that decays to 1/8 of its original amount in 75 years. ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/8 (3 half-lives)
  • 75/3 = 25 years (25 + 25 + 25 = 75)
  • Assume the original radioactivity of the substance was 80 curies. How much is still radioactive at that time? 80/2 = 40
  • 40/2 = 20 20/2 =10 curies
question 24
Question 24
  • What is meant by the term petrochemical? Chemicals made from petroleum
  • What are 3 examples of petrochemicals? Plastics, asphalt, jet fuel, gasoline, greases and waxes, etc.