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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Multilevel Logic Minimization -- Introduction' - gada

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Outline

- Multi-level minimization: technology independent local optimization.
- What to optimize: multi-level logic modeled as Boolean networks
- Optimization targets: # of literals
- What’s new: Don’t cares
- Don’t cares in multi-level logic
- Internal vs. external
- Satisfiablity vs. observablity
- Using don’t cares for multi-level minimization

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Boolean Network: Example- A Boolean network is an acyclic graph.
- Each node of the graph is a gate (may not be basic).
- Each edge implies a connection between two gates.
- Example:
- Description of the network:
- y1 = x’2 + x’3(NAND)
- y2 = x’4 + x’5(NAND)
- y3 = x’4y’1(NOR)
- y4 = x1 + y’3
- y5 = x6y2 + x’6y’3

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Boolean Network: Definition

A Boolean network is an interconnection of Boolean functions defined by a five-tuple:

- f = (f1,…,fn) n completely specified logic functions (gates);
- y = (y1,…,yn) n logic variables that are in one-to-one correspondence with f (signals of the network);
- I = (I1,…Ip) p primary inputs;
- O = (O1,…,Oq) q primary outputs;
- dX = (d1X,…,dqX) completely specified logic functions for the don’t care minterms on the outputs.

It is convenient to consider both I and O as functions. We denote x = (x1,…,xp) = (y1,…,yp) and z = (z1,…,zq) = (yn-q+1,…,yn-1,yn) as the I-component (primary inputs) and O-component (primary outputs) of vector y.

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Example: Full Adder- f: f1 buffer,…, f4 XOR, f5 AND,…, f8 OR,…, f10 buffer
- y: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
- I: 1,2,3
- O: 9, 10
- dX:

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Boolean Network: As a Digraph

G=(V,E): DAG

- V: each function is a node (node i fi yi).
- E: there is a directed edge from node i to node j if yi supp(fj), denoted by (i,j) E.

If (i,j) E, node i is a predecessor (input, fanin) of node j, and node j is a successor (output, fanout) of node i;

If there is a path from node i to node j, node i is a transitive predecessor (transitive fanin) of node j, and node j is a transitive successor (transitive fanout) of node i.

Pi = {jV | (j,i) E} Si = {jV | (i,j) E}

Pi* = {jV | node j is a transitive fanin of node i}

Si* = {jV | node j is a transitive fanout of node i}

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Example: Full Adder- P4={1,2}, P8={5,7}, P9={6}, P2=
- S4={6,7}, S8={10}, S9=, S2= {4,5}
- P4*={1,2}, P8*={1-5,7}, P9*={1-4,6}, P2*=
- S4*={6-10}, S8*={10}, S9*=, S2*= {4-10}

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Boolean Network: Net and Connection

- Each signal in the Boolean network represents the voltage on a segment of interconnect/wire in the circuit that implements the Boolean network. This wire segment is referred as a net.
- The logic value on a net is determined by the source terminal, a logical signal corresponding to a specific node yi in the Boolean network.
- Inputs to the nodes in the fanout Si are sink terminals.
- Source and sink terminals are called pins of the net.
- Each edge (i,j) E is also called a connection, denoted by cij with a logic variable yij.
- Pij = i, Sij = j, Pij* = Pi*{i}, Sij* = Sj*{j}

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Example: Full Adder

- XOR gate 6 produces logical signal y6; its output is the source terminal of corresponding net; this net has a single sink terminal on the input of buffer 9.
- For the connection C6,9 from 6 to 9, we have:

P6,9=6, S6,9=9, P6,9*=P6* {6}={1-4,6}, S6,9* = S9*{9}=9

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Boolean Network: Global Functions

- Functions fi(y) are local functions in that they are specified by the neighbors of node i in the Boolean network.
- The global functionsfi*(x)=(I,fi(y))are defined on a subset of primary inputs, where the composition operator is defined recursively as:

yi if iA

(A,fi(y)) =

fi if PiA

fi((A,fPi(1)), (A,fPi(2)),…, (A,fPi(|Pi|))) otherwise

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Example: Full Adder- f3* = (I,f3) = y3
- f5* = (I,f5) = f5 = y1y2
- f9* = (I,f9) = (I,f6) = XOR((I,f4), (I,f3)) =XOR(XOR((I,f1),(I,f2)),y3) =XOR(XOR(y1,y2),y3)

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Don’t Cares: Satisfiability Don’t Care

- Satisfiability don’t care (SDC) occurs when certain input combination to a circuit can never occur.
- How it happens?
- We may represent a node using both primary inputs and intermediate variables. (Bn+m)
- The intermediate variables depend on primary inputs.
- So, not all the minterms of Bn+m can occur.
- Example:
- y = a+b, then {y=0, a=1, b=-} will never occur (SDC).

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Computing SDCs

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Example: Minimization Using SDCs- Introduce intermediate variable g at node 9.
- Cannot do resubstitution since F/g = 0.
- What is the difference between bcd and bg (xor of the two)?
- bcdg’, bc’g, bd’g.

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Example: Minimization Using SDCs- SDC9=g(a+cd)=g’a+g’cd+ga’c’+ga’d’
- bcdg’ is covered by g’cd
- bc’g=abc’g+a’bc’g is covered by a + ga’c’
- bd’g=abd’g+a’bd’g is covered by a + ga’d’
- F = a + bg + e

? bcdg’,bc’g, bd’g ?

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Don’t Cares: Observability Don’t Care

- Observability don’t care (ODC) occurs when local changes cannot be observed at the primary outputs.
- How it happens?
- Signals at pre-specified observation points (primary outputs) are outputs from some intermediate gates.
- Change of some inputs to the intermediate gates may not change the outputs.
- So, these changes are not observable.
- Example:
- y = a+b, when a = 1, change on b is not observable.

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Computing ODCs

- Boolean difference of function f w.r.t. a variable x is defined as: f/x=fxfx’.
- Example: F(x,y,z) = x+yz
- F/x = FxFx’= 1yz = y’+z’
- F/y = FyFy’= (x+z)x = (x+z)x’+(x+z)’x = x’z
- If output F is sensitive to node y, I.e., FyFy’, then F/y=FyFy’=FyFy’’+Fy’Fy’=1.
- Therefore, ODCy=(F/y)’=(FyFy’)’=FyFy’+Fy’Fy’’.

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Example: Minimization Using ODCs1

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- y1=a’b+ab’, y2=by1, y3=c’y2’
- ODCy1=(F/y1)’=((y3/y2)(y2/y1))’ =((0c’)(b0))’=(c’b)’=b’+c
- K-map for y1and ODCy1
- So y1 = a’, XOR(a,b) NOT(a)

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Don’t Cares: Internal and External DCs

- Internal Don’t Cares arise from the structure of the network itself.
- SDC
- ODC
- External Don’t Cares (XDCs) arise from the external environment in which the network is embedded.
- XSDC
- XODC

These can be defined in the same way if we consider the larger network in which the Boolean network is hierarchically embedded.

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Don’t Cares: Complete Don’t Cares

- The complete don’t cares (CDCs) of node i in a Boolean network is given by:

CDCi=XSDC+XODC+SDCi+ODCi

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