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Lingua Franca Core for World Englishes. Lingua Franca Core (LFC). Core features for English as a lingua franca (ELF) Intelligible pronunciation Intelligible vocabulary use Intelligible grammar Intelligible communication style.

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lingua franca core lfc
Lingua Franca Core (LFC)
  • Core features for English as a lingua franca (ELF)
    • Intelligible pronunciation
    • Intelligible vocabulary use
    • Intelligible grammar
    • Intelligible communication style
jenkins j 2000 the phonology of english as an international language
Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language.
  • This book advocates a new approach to English pronunciation teaching, in which the goal is mutual intelligibility among non-native speakers, rather than the imitation of native speakers.
pronunciation
Pronunciation
  • How to achieve intelligibility ( Jenkins, 2000, p.132)
    • Most consonant sounds
    • Appropriate consonant cluster simplification
    • Vowel length distinctions
    • Nuclear stress
lfc consonant sounds
LFC(consonant sounds)
  • Consonants are essential for intelligibility of words
    • Vowels are more varied than consonants (e.g., dialects)
    • Historically vowels have been shifted (e.g., Great vowel shift)
      • Blind ブリーンド→ ブラインド
      • Sweet スウェート→ スウィート
      • Clean クレーン→ クリーン
      • Stone  ストーン→ ストウン
      • Name  ナーメ →ネーム → ネイム
      • Moon  モーン →ムーン
lfc simplification of consonant clusters
LFC(Simplification of consonant clusters)
  • Consonant clusters
    • initial cluster: max 3 cons. split;
    • final cluster: max 4 cons.twelfths, bursts, glimpsed
  • Simplification
    • [wh] -> [w] what, when, etc.
    • [j] -> none new, chew, etc.
lfc vowel length distinctions
LFC(Vowel length distinctions)
  • Short vowel
    • [i] it
  • Long vowel
    • [i:] eat
lfc stress
LFC(stress)
  • Stress and meaning
    • Placement of stress is important.
    • Stress sometimes functions as an emphasis of meaning.
  • Word stress
    • Desert DEsert deSErt
  • Sentence stress
    • I know that. I KNOW that. I know THAT.
difficulties of lfc pronunciation for japanese speakers of english
Difficulties of LFC pronunciation for Japanese speakers of English
  • Consonants
  • Vowels
  • Syllable and mora
difficulties 1 consonants
Difficulties 1: Consonants
  • [th]
    • Thank you. サンキュー[sank]
    • Think tank シンクタンク[sink]
    • That’s entertainment! ザッツ・エンターテイメント[za?tzu]
    • With    ウィズ[wizu]
  • Japanese speakers replace [th] with [s]and [z], rather than [t]and [d].
difficulties consonants 2
Difficulties: Consonants 2
  • [l] vs [r] distinction
    • Not crucial
    • Relatively learned late in L1 acquisition
difficulties vowel length distinctions
Difficulties: Vowel Length Distinctions
  • Phonemic distinction in English
    • [ful] [fu:l]
  • Non-phonemic distinction in Japanese English
    • 「メール」 [mail] vs [me:l]
    • 「ファースト・レディー」 [laidi] vs [ledi:]
difficulties syllable and mora
Difficulties: Syllable and Mora
  • Mora
    • Unit of sounds measured by the duration of time. One mora is pronounced with the same duration of time. Japanese uses mora-system.
  • Syllable
    • Unit of sounds measured by the number of vowels. One syllable has one vowel. English uses syllable-system.
vocabulary use
Vocabulary Use
  • How to achieve intelligibility in vocabulary use
grammar
Grammar
  • How to achieve intelligibility in grammar