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  1. Hserv 482 Session 9 Japan

  2. United Nations Human Development Report 2007

  3. Yanagishita & Guralnik 1998

  4. % Population Murray 2001

  5. Munnell 2004

  6. Munnell 2004

  7. Smoking Prevalence Rich Countries Nakaji

  8. Demilitarization, DecentralizationDemocratization • Abolish the military"the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes” • Free universal education, • Right of workers to organize and bargain collectively • Right of everyone "to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living." • Break up corporate conglomerates (zaibatsu) • Land reform jinushi (landlords) kosakumin (tenants)

  9. Democratization (Revise constitution ) • Feature a peace clause • "the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes” • Academic freedom, • Free universal education, • Right of workers to organize and bargain collectively • Right of everyone "to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living."

  10. Decentralization • Break up corporate conglomerates (zaibatsu) • "concentration of economic control enabled the zaibatsu to continue a semi-feudal relationship between themselves and their employees, suppress wages, and hinder the development of independent political ideologies. Thus the formation of the middle class, which was useful in opposing the militarist group in other democratic countries, was retarded.” (US mission) • Land reform jinushi (landlords) kosakumin (tenants)

  11. MacArthur Medicine Academic freedom, Free universal education, Right of workers to organize and bargain collectively Maximum Wage (65,000 yen in 1947 ~ $4333) Decentralization including breaking up zaibatsu and land reform (father had advocated in Philippines) "Controlled revolution"

  12. Cultural InfluencesNorth America East Asia INTERDEPENDENT SELF Texts: "Confucious, Tao Narratives: story of benevolence, diligence Moral imperatives: compassion of Buddha, modesty INDEPENDENCE OF SELF make CHOICES Texts: "declaration of independence-"all created equal" Narratives: story of Mayflower Moral imperatives: "God helps those who help themselves"

  13. 和wa In Japanese society acting untrue to one's inner beliefs is not only accepted but is it's own moral virtue. The most important of all Japanese social values is "wa," or harmony. If achieving wa requires a bit of play-acting, then so be it. The Japanese distinguish between "honne"--one's true feelings--and "tatemae"--the face one wears in public. When your honne is at odds with the harmony of the group, a mature, virtuous person is expected to rise above his or her own selfish feelings and, for the welfare of the majority, put on a good face. To "stick up for what you stand for" is not a Japanese ideal. Most Japanese understand there's a difference between this public play-acting and reality, but nearly everyone is agreed upon its importance. In other words, what Americans may perceive as hypocritical, dishonest behavior is not only tolerated in Japan, but esteemed as good citizenship. Robert Levine: Associate Dean, College of Science and Mathematics, Professor of Psychology, California State University Fresno

  14. 和wa Some of the subtleties might be lost by an American reader. My understanding is that the tatemae is not "faking it" but more, adhering to an understood social code. The other person also understands the code, so the true feelings are not really the issue, but rather the choice the person is making to uphold the code and honor the group connection rather than the personal if they are in conflict. That choice in itself is a true personal statement. It's not "fake" if everyone knows the code. Ann Glusker PH S/KC Japanese father, English mother

  15. West-East Thought Social Cognitive Systems

  16. Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, Table 2.1, Personal Income and Its Disposition.

  17. Japan Wage Diff. Rank, Gender 90-04

  18. Japanese unions and wages "Firms leveraged cooperative relations with workers Unions organized at company level, so strong sense of purpose with management Firms have preserved employment security in exchange for wage restraint Firms have maintained sense of equity by restraining compensation for managers even more than for blue-collar and clerical workers so wages have varied inversely with rank" Vogel (2006): Japan remodeled : how government and industry are reforming Japanese capitalism Cornell University Press

  19. Piketty 2006

  20. Japan: boss and manager response to economic downturn in the late 1990s

  21. Tax burden Namekata Note: Tax includes federal, state and local income taxes. Sources: Motohide Hashimoto from http://higashimi.ld.infoseek.co.jp/zeikokusaihikaku1.htm

  22. e w Z e a l a n T h a i l a n d U . S . A . Mean Score on Total Battery Second International Mathematics Study 7 0 6 0 5 0 J a p a n C a n a d a 4 0 Mean Percent Correct r a c e d 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 92 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 3 8 4 2 5 3 6 9 7 1 8 1 9 1 Percentile Rank of Father’s Occupation

  23. Health Olympics Age 80 Whites Willcox 2001 Manton NEJM 1995

  24. Health Olympics Age 80 Whites Manton NEJM 1995

  25. Health Olympics Age 80 Whites Willcox 2001 Manton NEJM 1995

  26. Life Expectancy for males *USA

  27. Life expectancy for females *USA

  28. JAMA June 4, 2004.

  29. Depression in Japan (Inaba 2005) • US has more depression • US and Japanese women more depressed than men • Related to income in both countries • Not inversely related to level of education unlike US • US: education is route to increased income and status with complexity and autonomy linked to education • Japan: education gains entry to firms & occupations • advancement depends on size, status of company with age, seniority, family needs (married, dependents) determine promotions, earnings, (have strong in-house training in job skills, not education)

  30. Japan Status: (Inaba 2005) • Japan a status inconsistent society (education, income, occupational prestige not closely tied to subjective class identification) • "nenko" system (upward mobility with seniority), in-house welfare services, corporate support for families (sweeper invites boss to child's b-day party) • National social programs (social security, pension plans, nursing insurance) act as safety nets for most citizens lessening vulnerability to stressful life experiences

  31. Health Care & Public Health in Japan Medical School training • No patient contact throughout entire period • Can go out and practice, never having touched a patient Average doctor sees 75+ patients a day • No appointments (3 hour wait, 3 minute consultation) Hospital stays • Very long (~ one month) • Must supply own cup for a drink, chopsticks for meals • Men shower on M, W, F, women the other days • Toilets down the hall, must supply soap, towel and shampoo Appendectomies (more common than in US) • 60% of appendices removed were normal Public health: 1000 measles deaths in 2002

  32. PEACE CLAUSE US desired revision • Features a peace clause (Article 9) • "the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes” • SINCE END OF COLD WAR, US trying to get Japan to revise Article 9 of constitution which bans military or waging war • "NEW JAPAN NATIONALISM, unilateral revision of Article 9 would isolate Japan from all of Asia" (Fukuyama 0704)

  33. Health Olympics Age 80 Whites Manton NEJM 1995