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Getting Ready for Winter: An NCEP Update. “Where America’s Climate, Weather and Ocean Services Begin”. Louis W. Uccellini Director, NCEP Northeast Regional Operational Workshop Albany, New York November 2, 2004. Outline. NWS Seamless Suite of Products

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getting ready for winter an ncep update

Getting Ready for Winter: An NCEP Update

“Where America’s Climate, Weather and Ocean Services Begin”

Louis W. Uccellini

Director, NCEP

Northeast Regional Operational Workshop

Albany, New York

November 2, 2004

outline
Outline
  • NWS Seamless Suite of Products
  • New Climate Forecast System: Seasonal Climate Prediction
  • 6-10 day forecasts
  • 4-7 day gridded forecasts
  • 1-3 day range: Winter Weather Desk
  • NCEP Update
    • Computer
    • Building
    • Collaborative Activities/Test Beds
  • Summary
slide3

New CFS

CD 6-10 Day Forecast Upgrade

DGEX + HPC support for Days 4 -7

HPC Winter Weather Desk Days 1-3

the ncep coupled climate forecast system implemented august 24 2004
The NCEP coupled Climate Forecast System (implemented August 24, 2004)
  • Global Forecast System 2003 (GFS03)
  • T62 in horizontal; 64 layers in vertical
  • Recent upgrades in model physics
      • Solar radiation (Hou, 1996)
      • cumulus convection (Hong and Pan, 1998)
      • gravity wave drag (Kim and Arakawa, 1995)
      • cloud water/ice (Zhao and Carr,1997)

1. Atmospheric component

2. Oceanic component

  • GFDL MOM3 (Pacanowski and Griffies, 1998)
  • 1/3°x1° in tropics; 1°x1° in extratropics; 40 layers
  • Quasi-global domain (74°S to 64°N)
  • Free surface

3. Coupled model

  • Once-a-day coupling
  • Sea ice extent taken as observed climatology
slide5

Coupled Model

Simulation

ENSO SST cycles

Simulated

2002-2040 (top)

Observed

1965-2003

(bottom)

slide9

CFS Seasonal

Precip Forecast (mm/month)

Without

skill mask

slide10

CFS Seasonal

Precip Forecast (mm/month)

With

skill mask

  • If anomaly correlation between forecast and observed conditions over the 1982-2003 period is below 0.3, values are not shown
slide11

CFS Seasonal

Precip Forecast (mm/month)

Without

skill mask

slide12

CFS Seasonal

Precip Forecast (mm/month)

With

skill mask

  • If anomaly correlation between forecast and observed conditions over the 1982-2003 period is below 0.3, values are not shown
cdc calibration of 1998 mrf

Upgrade to the 6–10; 7–14 Day Forecast

CDC Calibration of 1998 MRF
  • Dynamical models of the atmosphere all contain biases (differences between model and atmosphere climatologies) and systematic errors which are flow-regime dependent.
  • These errors cause the model to make forecasts which are, for example, too dry/wet, warm/cold in comparison with what is observed.
  • The errors described above cause the probability forecasts from ensemble models to be“uncalibrated” in comparison with nature. This means that when we look at model forecasts, we find that the probabilities predicted for wet or dry, warm or cold, do not happen in nature with the same frequency.
  • CDC’s reforecast calibration greatly reduces this calibration error.
cdc calibration
CDC Calibration
  • To calibrate the MRF, CDC re-ran the 15-member ensemble of the model over a 23 year period and compared the probability forecasts from the model with the frequencies of events (wet/dry, warm/cold) in nature.
  • This leads to rules for correcting future, real-time probability forecasts from this model.
  • CDC automated approach for temp/precip is as good or better than official forecast during 1 year test period
  • Operational implementation Sept 04
4 7 day gridded forecast
4-7 Day Gridded Forecast
  • Maximum temperature
  • Minimum temperature
  • 12 hour PoP
  • 6 hourly dew point
  • 6 hourly wind (direction and speed)
  • 6 hourly cloud cover
  • 12 hourly weather
  • The following grids are being generated daily
  • Experimental grids can be viewed here
    • http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/5km_grids/5km_gridsbody.html
  • Production Methodology documentation
    • http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/5km_grids/medr_5km_methodology.pdf
  • All grids extend offshore to cover the coastal waters
  • Verification program underway
4 7 day gridded products
4-7 Day Gridded Products

7 Day Forecast Valid November 3, 2004

Max Temp

Min Temp

focus on winter weather
Focus on Winter Weather

NWS Winter Weather Desk

  • Goals of 3 year experiment from 2001- 2004:
    • Improve Winter Weather Services to the public through coordination of the winter weather watches/warnings with National guidance products
    • Test Short Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) system for applications to winter weather forecasting
  • Motivation:
    • Jan 24-25, 2000; December 30, 2000: March 4-6, 2001
nws winter weather desk
NWS Winter Weather Desk
  • Time line: Sep 15 – April 1
  • Participants
    • NCEP HPC
      • Provide SREF based Winter Wx guidance
      • Collaborate with WFOs (Chat Room Technology)
    • WFOs
      • All CONUS WFOs
      • Use guidance from NCEP to produce coordinated Winter Storm Watches/Warnings
  • Products: http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/wwd/winter_wx.shtml
    • 24 h probability (low, moderate, high) of meeting/exceeding 4”, 8”, 12” snow, 0.25” freezing rain (for day 1, 2, 3)
    • 72h Low tracks graphic and discussion
winter weather desk products
Winter Weather Desk Products

PROBABILITY GRAPHICS FOR SNOW AND FREEZING RAIN

  • Indicate the probability (potential) for a location to receive specific thresholds of accumulated snow or ice.
  • Snowfall - lines represent the probability (low, moderate, and high) that enclosed areas will receive equal to or greater than a specific threshold accumulation (4", 8" or 12") of snowfall in a 24 hour period.
  • Freezing Rain - depicts the probability in the same manner and time period as snowfall, but with an accumulation threshold of .25" (one quarter of an inch) of freezing rain.

Day 1

Prob > 4”

Prob > 8”

Prob > 12”

Prob > 0.25”

winter weather desk products22
Winter Weather Desk Products

LOW TRACKS GRAPHIC

  • Depicts the forecast location and central pressure of significant surface lows impacting the 48 contiguous United States in 12 hour increments out to 72 hours into the future.
  • The low position and track forecast by the meteorologist at NCEP HPC is depicted in black.
  • About 20 different computer model forecasts of low position for a given time period are depicted with symbols.
  • Provides a user both the preferred position and track of the low and a sense of the uncertainty with the forecast.
dec 6 7 2003 event
Ranked 15th on all time ALY snowstorm list

Very little Snow in E NY/W NE in NOV

First week of December featured a major event

Dec 6-7 2003 Event
regional statistics
Regional Statistics

Trend of ER WWE WFO stats

* Broke previous ER regional record

short range ensemble forecast
Short Range Ensemble Forecast
  • 15 members twice per day
  • 63 hrs from 9 and 21Z
  • Resolution upgraded August 2004
    • To 32 km from 48
    • To 60 levels from 45
  • Mean and spread charts available for forecaster use
  • Most intensive use is in production of probability of snow and ice accumulations product
  • http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/SREF/SREF.html

0.25” prcp

slide28

Planned SREF Upgrades

  • Summer 2005
  • Run SREF 4 times per day (03, 09, 15 and 21 UTC)
  • Improved and new products (Convective, Aviation, Tropical, Energy)
  • Output SREF forecasts for Alaska
  • Implement Grid Based Bias Correction
  • Improve Probabilistic FVS verification
  • Develop Confidence Factors for forecasts
  • Add 5 WRF members
  • Add RSM BUFR files
  • Common WRF post-processor
  • Implement ensemble mean BUFR files
computing capability
Computing Capability

$20M/Year Investment

Commissioned/Operational IBM Supercomputer in Gaithersburg, MD (June 6, 2003)

  • Receives Over 123 Million Global Observations Daily
  • Sustained Computational Speed: 450 Billion Calculations/Sec
  • Generates More Than 5.7 Million Model Fields Each Day
  • Global Models (Weather, Ocean, Climate)
  • Regional Models (Aviation, Severe Weather, Fire Weather)
  • Hazards Models (Hurricane, Volcanic Ash, Dispersion)
  • 2.4x upgrade operational by mid-January, 2005
  • Backup in Fairmont, WV operational by mid-January, 2005
ncep s future location
NCEP’s Future Location

New Location

NOAA Center for

Weather and Climate Prediction

UMD Research Park, College Park

(Early FY08)

Current Location

NOAA Science Center

World Weather Building

Camp Springs

ncep s future location32
NCEP’s Future Location

NOAA Center for

Weather and Climate Prediction

UMD Research Park, College Park

(Early FY08)

noaa center for weather and climate prediction
NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction
  • Lease build-to-suit facility with 268,762 sq ft
    • House 800 staff
      • Federal employees, contractors, visiting scientists
      • 40 spaces for visiting professors and students
    • From the World Weather Building
      • National Weather Service’s (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
      • National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service’s (NESDIS) research and satellite services
    • From Silver Spring
      • Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research’s (OAR) Air Resources Laboratory (ARL)
ncep test beds
NCEP Test Beds
  • Developmental Test bed Center (EMC)
  • Climate Test Bed (EMC, CPC)
  • USWRP/Joint Hurricane Test Bed (TPC)
  • Hazardous Weather Forecast Test Bed (SPC)
  • Aviation Test Bed (AWC)
  • USWRP/Hydrometeorological Test Bed (HPC) (in progress)
  • Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation
summary
Summary
  • NWS/NCEP’s Seamless Suite of Products from S/I forecasts to daily support for WFO watch/warning responsibilities have been upgraded
    • Based on new research results
    • Enhanced modeling capabilities
    • Systematic implementation and test of a “collaborative forecast” approach
  • NCEP’s infrastructure needs – computer, building, staff – are being addressed
  • NCEP will continue to make advanced products readily available