Blood Chapter #12
Chapter 12.1 Notes • Blood functions to pick up and deliver nutrients and take away waste. Delivery jobs • Deliver digested nutrients from fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to all body cells. • Delivers oxygen to all body cells. • Delivers chemical messengers to some body cells. • Delivers water, minerals and vitamins to all body cells.
Pick up jobs • Pick up carbon dioxide waste from cells and carry it to the lungs. • Pick up chemical waste from cells and carry it to the kidneys. • Pick up excess body heat and carry it to the skin. (Red flush from exercise) • Blood helps in fighting diseases and help to stop bleeding. • Some animals have NO blood. (sponges, jellyfish, flatworms)
Chapter 12.2 Notes • Plasma is the nonliving, yellow liquid part of blood. 92% water, 8% proteins, nutrients, salt. • Bone marrow is the soft center part of the bone. Make red and white blood cells.
Red blood cells • Carry oxygen • 5 million in one drop of blood • Live 120 days • No nucleus • Make up the majority of your blood Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that joins with oxygen and gives the red cells their color. Contain Iron. Anemia is a condition in which there are too few red blood cells in the blood. The person feels weak, tired and short of breath.
White Blood Cells • Destroy harmful microbes • Remove dead cells • Make proteins that help prevent disease • Have nucleus • Bigger than Red Blood Cells • 8000 in one drop of blood • Live 10 Days • Made in spleen, thymus and tonsils. White blood cell
Leukemia is a blood cancer in which the number of white blood cells increase at an abnormal rate. • May have 100 000 white blood cells (during infection 30 000) • White blood cells count doesn’t return to normal • White blood cells can not perform jobs Dark purple cells are white blood cells.
Platelets • Aid in forming blood clots. • Not complete cells. • Smaller than red blood cells • 250 000 platelets in a drop of blood • Live 5 days Arrows point to platelets Hemophilia is a disease in which a persons blood won’t clot. Genetic disease. Lack the clotting chemical in blood.
Chapter 12.3 Notes • 4 main blood types= A, B, AB, O • Difference is due to proteins found on red blood cells and in blood plasma. • Types A & B blood cells are different. • Type AB red cell proteins are the same as both type A & B, has NO Plasma proteins. • Type O has plasma proteins like types A & B.
If different blood types are mixed large clumps of blood form and can not pass through capillaries. Can cause blocked vessels in the heart, brain, or lungs. Death can occur.
Which blood types can be given to: • Type A blood? A or AB • Type B blood? B or AB • Type AB blood? AB • Type O blood? A, B, AB, O
Chapter 12.4 Notes • Immune system is made of proteins, cells and tissues that identify and defend the body against foreign chemicals and organisms. • Teardrops, mucus and skin are part of the immune system.
Antibodies are chemicals that help destroy bacteria or viruses. (made by body). • Antigens are foreign substances, usually proteins, that invade the body and cause diseases (Bacteria or viruses)
When you are sick your white blood cells attach to the bacteria and break it open. Once the bacteria is open it dies. Each different type of virus or bacterium that enters the body has a different antigen shape. Your immune system “remembers” the shapes.
DPT shots protect against diphtheria, pertussia, tetanus. (Vaccination) • Immunity is the ability of a person who once had a disease to be protected from getting the same disease again.
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-is a disease of the immune system. Caused by a virus found in body fluids, such as blood and semen. Destroy white blood cells. 4 ways a virus can be passed • Sexual intercourse • Sharing needles • Pregnant woman to unborn child • Blood transfusion
Work Cited • “Red Blood Cells”. February 15, 2007. http://science.uwe.ac.uk/research/uploads/CRIB_blood_cells.jpg • “Blood in test tubes”. February 15, 2007. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/tcolvill/435/plasma.gif • “Red blood cells 2”. February 15, 2007. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/lifecycle/images/1-2-6-4-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.jpg • “White blood cells”. February 15, 2007. http://coris.noaa.gov/glossary/blood_186.jpg • “Leukemia”. February 15, 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/group/cleary/leukemia.jpg • “Platelets”. February 15, 2007. http://www.technion.ac.il/~mdcourse/274203/slides/Blood/7-Platelets.jpg • “Blood type compatibility”. February 20, 2007. http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/galeSurgery/gesu_03_img0212.jpg • “Blood types”. February 20. 2007. http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f21-7a_abo_blood_types_c.jpg • “Blood Type percentages”. February 20, 2007. http://www.homefocused.com/images/imgRBT-blood-types.gif
“Antigens and antibodies”. February 21, 2007. http://research.yale.edu/ysm/images/78.2/articles-agriculture-antibodies.jpg • “Red cell antibody”. February 21, 2007. http://www.local6.com/2006/0209/6869175.jpg • “Vaccination”. February 21, 2007. http://www.calder.net/images/photos/vaccination.jpg • “AIDS Stats Africa”. February 21, 2007. http://learningat.ke7.org.uk/ictafricaproject/HS/Tanita%20B/aids%20graphic.jpg • AIDS Stats Worldwide”. February 21, 2007. http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/imagerepository/AIDS_2004_graphic.jpg