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What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Putting the pieces of the puzzle together Lee Casuscelli 2010
Positive Partnerships Website • www.autismtraining.com.au • Teacher training component -Certificate – 4 days FTF. • Parent/carer component – 2 days FTF • Online training, resources, discussion board, fact sheets.
What do we already know? What do you see in your student’s with an ASD?
A SpectrumAutism is a complex developmental disability characterised as a pervasive developmental disorder. Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Asperger Syndrome PDD.NOS Autistic Disorder Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Autism affects a person’s ability to communicate, form relationships with others and respond appropriately to the environment in varying degrees.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? • Triad of Impairments: • Communication • Social • Repetitive / Restricted Behaviours • Diagnosis - DSM1V • Prevalence • Future
Repetitive behaviour Restricted interest The Diversity of Autism Communication verbal non-verbal COMMUNICATION Social Interaction SOCIAL INTERACTION aloof passive active/odd SEVERE mild marked Sensory SENSORY hyposensitive hypersensitive Learning Style I.Q strong visual spatial skills; visual learner; kinaesthetic; gestalt learner; poor executive functioning; detail-focused Intellectual Ability (IQ) Learning styles severe moderate mild average gifted
Key Characteristics • Communication • Social • Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests • Sensory • Information Processing
Planning around the Key Characteristics Planning matrix
Communication • All types of interactions where a message is sent or received • Main hurdle is around the social purpose of language – pragmatics • Need an interpreter Diagnostic Criteria: • Delayed speech development (autism and HFA, not Aspergers) • Impairment in expressive language • Impairment in receptive language or comprehension skills • Use of rote learnt phrases – echolalia • Unusual vocal quality • Difficulty initiating communicative interactions - conversations • Differences in eye gaze, body language and use of gesture • What do you see in your students?
Social • Core feature of ASD • Significantly impacts on friendships – fewer friends, prefer company of older or younger children • More vulnerable to bullying – 4 times more at risk than the non ASD population • Higher rates of depression and anxiety • Diagnostic Criteria: • Impairment in non verbal communication • Failure to develop peer relationships • Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment • What do you see in your students?
Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests • Difficulty coping with change and unfamiliar situations • Difficulty regulating obsessions and behaviour • Difficulty responding to traditional behaviour management • Need for sameness • Chunk Learning Style • Diagnostic Criteria: • Abnormally intense preoccupation with a pattern of interests • Stereotyped or repetitive motor mannerisms • Adherence to routines or rituals • What do you see in your students?
Sensory • Sensory processing is the ability to organise and interpret information receive by the 5 far senses and the 2 near senses • Two broad categories – over sensitive and under sensitive – hypo / hyper • Difficulty accurately recognising, integrating and processing sensory information • Auditory (fear of loud noises) • Visual (watching spinning objects) • Tactile (aversion to touch) • Gustatory (craving for strong tastes) • Olfactory (avoidance of smells) • Proprioception ( deep pressure – massage) • Vestibular (love of jumping or spinning) • Diagnostic Criteria: • Not currently part of the diagnostic criteria • Regularly reported as an area of need • What do you see in your students?
Information Processing • Weak Central Coherence – focusing on small details rather than the big picture • Executive Functioning – problem solving • Difficulties with: • Planning and organising • Concrete and literal thinking • Attention – maintaining, shifting and switching • Thinking of different options • Generalising • Understanding social situations • What do you see in your students?
And now? • Refer to the list created at the start of this session. • Would you change anything? • Would you add anything? • Would you remove anything? • Would you re word anything?
What works? Teach communication skills in natural settings Allow time for communication Provide alternative means of communication- signing, picture exchange Use visual communication – teach use and introduce systematically Use short sentences Speak calmly and allow extra time for processing PBS – manage the antecedents, make environmental changes, teach replacement behaviours. Positive. Sensory profiling Adapt the environment Use social scripts, comic strip conversations, power cards Buddy for support Utilise strengths and interests Modify / adjust or adapt curriculum WORK together = collaboration = community of practice