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Circuit Switching and Telephone Network. 8 장 Circuit Switching and Telephone Network. 8.1 회선교환 (Circuit Switching) 8.2 전화망 (Telephone Network). Switching. Switching ~ whenever we have multiple devices, we have the problem of how to connect them to make one-to-one communication possible.

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8 circuit switching and telephone network
8장 Circuit Switching and Telephone Network

8.1 회선교환(Circuit Switching)

8.2 전화망 (Telephone Network)

  • Switching

~ whenever we have multiple devices, we have the problem of how to connect them to make one-to-one communication possible.

switching cont d
  • Switching method
8 1 circuit switching
8.1 Circuit Switching

~ create a direct physical connection between two devices such as phones or computer.

  • Circuit-switched network
circuit switching cont d
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Circuit Switch
    • a device with n inputs and m outputs that creates a temporary connection between an input link and output link.
  • A circuit switch
circuit switching cont d1
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Circuit Switching

~ can use either two technologies.

  • Switching
circuit switching cont d2
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Space-Division Switches
    • the paths in the circuit are separated from each other spatially(crossbar switch)
  • Crossbar switch

~ connect n input to m output in a grid, using electronic microswitch(transistor) at each crosspoint.

circuit switching cont d4
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Limitation of crossbar switch
    • The number of switch (huge size)

: connect n inputs by m output

      • require n * m crosspoint.

(ex : 1000 input, 1000 output → 1,000,000 crosspoint)

    • inefficient
      • fewer than 25% of the crosspoints are in use at a given time.
      • the rest are idle
circuit switching cont d5
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Multistage Switches
    • Devices are linked to switches that, in turn are linked to a hierarchy of other switches
  • Combines crossbar switches in several stages
  • Provides multiple paths connecting each pair of linked devices
  • Reduction in crosspoints results in blocking during heavy traffic
circuit switching cont d7
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Crosspoint

~ compare the number of crosspoints in a 15-by-15 single-stage crossbar switch with the 15-by-15 multistage switch.

    • single-stage switch
      • need 225 crosspoint(15 * 15)
    • multistage switch
      • first-stage : 10 crosspoint(5 * 2) *3 = 30 crosspoint
      • second-stage : 9 crosspoint(3 *3) * 2 = 18 crosspoint
      • third-stage : 10 crosspoint(5 * 2) *3 = 30 crosspoint

 total number of crosspoint : 78

circuit switching cont d8
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Time-Division Switch

~ is accomplished using TDM(Time-division multiplexing) and TSI(Time-Slot Interchange)

    • TSI - change the ordering of the slots based on the desired connections.
circuit switching cont d9
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Time-division multiplexing without a time-slot interchange(TSI)
circuit switching cont d10
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Time-division multiplexing with a time-slot interchange(TSI)
circuit switching cont d13
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Space-and Time-Division Switching Combinations

~ combine space-division and time-division technology to take advantage of the best of both

    • TST(time-space-time)
    • TSST(time-space-space-time)
    • STTS(space-time-time-space)
8 2 telephone network
8.2 Telephone Network
  • Major Components
  • local loop connects subscriber to nearest end office, 1st 3 digits of phone number define the office, next four define the local loop number
  • trunks are the transmission media handling the communication between offices
  • switching office has switches that connects several local loops or trunks
telephone network cont d
Telephone Network (cont’d)
  • Intra-LATA (local access transport area) services are provided by local exchange carriers. Since 1996, there are two types of LECs (local exchange carriers): incumbent local exchange carriers and competitive local exchange carriers.
telephone network cont d2
Telephone Network (cont’d)
  • IXCs are interexchange carriers (long-distance companies)
  • POPs are points of presence – a switching office in a LATA that allows an IXC to provide inter-LATA services
telephone network cont d3
Telephone Network (cont’d)
  • Voice communication used analog signals in the past, but is now moving to digital signals. On the other hand, dialing started with digital signals (rotary) and is now moving to analog signals (touch-tone).
circuit switching cont d15
Circuit Switching(cont’d)
  • Touch-Tone Dialing
    • When a user dials, for example, the number 8, two bursts of analog signals with frequencies 852 and 1336 Hz are sent to the end office