Packed/General Cargo • break bulk, • neo bulk • unitizised cargo. • Break Bulk – is typically when goods is packed in boxes, bags, barrels, crates, drums & on pallets. • Ship type used: bulk carriers. • Neo Bulk – is typically lumber, paper, steel, cars & trucks. • Ship type used: bulk carriers but also specialisedro-ro. • Unitized Cargo – is typically cargo that is packed in containers. Ship type used: container. Unpacked/Bulk Cargoa. Liquid/Wet Bulk - is typically petroleum, gasoline, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), liquid chemicals… • Ships used for liquid bulk are tankers. • b. Dry Bulk - is typically coal, grain, iron ore… • Ship type used: bulk carrier.
Cargo stowage • shoring, blocking off, • seizing, lashing, • upright 1. side ceiling, side sparring, cargo battens, grating (not shown), 2. umber boards, 3. floor ceiling, 4. hatch coaming, 5. hatchway, 6. upper ‘tweendeck, 7. lower ‘tweendeck. 8. lower hold (LH), hold, hatch,6+7+8= hatchh = deckhead, headroom,h’ = head under beams,
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) - standard unit for describing a ship's cargo carrying capacity or a shipping terminal cargo handling capacity . • A standard forty-foot (40x8x8 feet) container equals two TEUs (each 20x8x8 feet). • Bale capacity – is the cubic capacity of a space when the breadth is taken from the inside of the cargo battens, the depth from the wood ceiling to the underside of the deck beams, and the length from the inside of the bulkhead stiffeners or sparring where fitted. • Grain capacity – is the cubic capacity of a space when the lengths, breadths and depths are taken right to the plating. Triple-E mega ships will be based on the three main purposes for their creation: Economy of scale, Energy efficiency & Environmentally improved (2013-2015, Korea's DSME shipyard ).
Stowage factor –is the ratio of weight to stowage space required under normal conditions. • It indicates how many cubic meters one metric ton of a particular type of cargo occupies in a hold, taking account of unavoidable stowage losses in the means of transport or the CTU (Cargo Transport Unit). • Usually expressed as cubic meters per tonnes (m³/tonne) or cubic feet per ton (cu.ft.ton). • Broken stowage –is the space between packages which remain unfilled. • The percentage that has to be allowed varies with the type of cargo and with the shape of the hold. It is greatest when large cases have to be stowed in an end hold. • Deadweight cargo – is cargo on which freight is usually charged on its weight. • Cargo stowing less than 1.2 m³/tonne(40 cu.ft./ton) is likely to be rated as deadweight cargo. • Measurement cargo – is cargo on which freight is usually charged on the volume occupied by the cargo.
Angle of repose Angle of repose • When bulk cargo is loaded by “pouring” on to a fiat surface, it forms an angle between the cone slope of the cargo and a horizontal plane. • Low angles of repose indicate that the bulk cargo is prone to shifting at sea. • The IMO “Code of Safe Practices for Bulk Cargoes” (the “Bulk Code”) distinguishes between cargoes having angles of repose less than % greater than 35 degrees. • For cargoes with a smaller angle of repose the Code recommends level trimming and filling in of spaces in which they are loaded.
Before loading cargo the following preparations should be made: • Holds and ‘tween decks thoroughly swept down. • All dunnage removed from cargo spaces or stowed at one end and covered. • Bilges should be cleaned and sweetened, bilge suctions tested. • Cement chocks at the top of the bilge and ‘tween decks should be examined and found or placed in good condition. • Limber boards should be covered with separation clothes so as to prevent the bulk getting into the bilges. • All hatch beams should be in position. The condition of hatch boards should be checked. • Shifting boards should be rigged where required. • Fire extinguishers tested.
Ship’s cargo operation gear Ship's gantry cranes • very flexible from the operation point of view • very easily travel from the forward to after part of a ship, on the laid down track ways. Some general parts of a gantry crane : • gantry arms • gantry legs • gantry sprocket teeth head (a device like a wheel with one or more rows of tooth-like parts sticking out which keeps a chain moving) • wheels • spreaders • traversing trolley • hoisting and lowering head • hatch cover lifting base • hydraulic ramps • curtains The main purpose of dual cranes is to achievethe highest out turn rates in the minimum time. These two sets of the cranes can worksimultaneouslybut on the two different cargoholds depending uponthe size criteria of thecrane and cargo holds. Best outturn is achievedwhen both the cranes areworking well apart with ample clearance between them. Ship with two gantry cranes
The gantry crane tracks i.e. the platform on which the gantry crane runs. These include the sprocket teeth head tracks and the track way for the wheels of the gantry.
Radial head cranes • easy to operate because • fixed in one place and only their head moves all round for the cargo operation on the cargo holds. ship with radial head crane
crane pedestal (or crane post), • bolted connection, • fixed lower structure, • superstructure (or cranebody, or revolving super- structure), • slewing ring, • driving cab, • crane boom, • heel pin or boom heel pin, • topping cylinder, • cargo runner (or hoisting rope, or lifting rope), • head built-in cargo sheaves, • crane top built-in cargo sheaves, • cargo winch, • rope terminal (thimble), • shackle, • swivel, • link, • cargo hook
Port cargo handling equipmenthigh efficiency with minimal impact on the environment through advanced technology • ship unloaders and loaders are based on a unique screw conveyor technology, in combination with belt conveyors & can handle virtually any dry bulk cargo. • enclosed conveying line for environment-friendly operation. • supplied in rail-mounted, port mobile, road mobile, stationary, & ship-based versions. • e.g. • a new generation of 'eco-friendly' efficient pure car truck carrier (PCTCs )are entering service; • they feature MacGregor RoRo access outfits & are the world's first car carriers to have all of their RoRo equipment electrically-driven. Rail yard and port cargo handling equipment The 4,000-unit pure car truck carrier (PCTC), Iris Ace, is owned and operated by Japanese company, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd (MOL) and features an electrically-driven MacGregor stern quarter ramp/door, side ramps and two movable ramps from Cargotec.
Bulk cargo handling equipment Timber grab dry bulk cargoes - handling facilities may be in the form of: • power-propelled conveyor belts, usually fed at the landward end by a hopper (a very large container on legs) or • grabs, which may be magnetic for handling ores,fixed to a high capacity travelling crane or travelling gantries. • These gantries move not only parallel to the quay, but also run back for considerable distances, and cover a large stacking area. • These two types of equipment are suitable for handling coal and ores. • In the case of bulk sugar or when the grab is also used,the sugar would be discharged into a hopperfeeding by gravity a railway wagon or road vehicle below. Hopper Gantry crane
General cargo handling equipment Board sling – rope passes through holes in the 4 corners of wooden board which is a platform for lifting goods. 8-sided net : 8 lifting points help contain cargo better than a square net. Rope sling – ends of a rope are joined together to form a loop. It is slung around cargo in bags/bales. Chain sling put around logs or steel products such as beams to be lifted by crane. A ring and a hook at ends. Car sling – made of rope or wire, has a spreader from which two slings are, in turn, suspended. Nets have an eye at each end of corners for lifting with a hook. For cargo not easily susceptible for damage.