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The History of Drugs Pharmacology
What is it? • Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms. The word pharmacology comes from the Greek word • Pharmakon= medicine/drugs • Plusology = study of
Pharmacology • Is concerned with the nature of drugs • Their effects on the body • Drug doses • Side effects • benefits
Medical Uses for Drugs • Drugs have three medical uses • They are used to diagnose • Treat symptoms, signs, conditions, diseases • Prevent disease
Preventive Use Drugs are used to prevent the occurrence of disease or condition. The administration of a preventive drug is known as prophylaxis. • Preventive Use • Example: drugs taken prior to travel or surgery for motion sickness • Vaccinations
Diagnostic Use • Diagnostic Use • Used by themselves or in conjunction with radiologic or cardio procedures
Therapeutic Use The majority of drugs are used to control, improve, or cure symptoms signs, conditions, or diseases of a physiologic or psychological nature. • Therapeutic Use • Antibiotic drugs • Analgesic drugs • Maintenance drugs, such as insulin
Ancient Times Pharamacology is one of the oldest branches of medicine. Egyptians recorded the use of drugs on clay tablets, wall paintings, in tombs, and on papyrus as early as 2000 BC • Drugs in Ancient Times
Ancient Times The substances were crushed, powdered, dried, applied as a paste, drunk as a tea, breathed in or eaten. • Egyptians treated diseases with substances found in nature. • Plant and animal parts, oils, fats, roots, leaves, etc.,
Through the Ages drugs have been used for medicinal purposes that have since been proven harmful or even fatal. • The symbol Rx comes from the Latin word recipe.
Olde Times The Poor Planters Physician was published in 1734 in Williamsburg, Virginia and was purchased by nearly every household in the colonies. • “Every Man his Own Doctor” • The Poor Planters Physician
Bloody Flux The Rx would be: Part with 8 oz of blood The next day take 80 grain sof Indian Physic With 2 quarts of warm water By way of vomit Hot broth made of salt Patient must only take food of mutton broth or chicken broth and a decoction of deer horn with boiled plantain leaf. To prevent repeat of this disease,avoid sleeping on the cold ground, drinking cold water or eating raw fruit, Nor venture to drink new cider. • Folkes suffered from such ailments as: • The Bloody Flux- • Which symptoms included: • Small fever • Greivous gripping • Patient will be grieviously tormented in his bowels
Common Ailments of yore • Quinsey- • Another Distemper consequent to a cold. • Known by a fever, swelling of the uvula and throat. • Rx bleed immediately 10 oz. the next day take a purge of decoction of mallows, and syrup of peach blossoms. • Bleed again the next day, • Gargle with Papa’s Liquor, ½ pint, Addsome sage tea and sharpen with a little allom. • To prevent this disease: • Wash your neck ande behind the ears, every morning with cold water. Do not muffle up too warm, either night or day.
Dangerous Drugs • Cocaine TOOTHACHE DROPS- • Instantaneous Cure! • At the time that it was distributed it was not known that cocaine was a highly addictive drug. This remedy was commonly given to children
Dangerous Drugs- 1900 • Drugs often contained one or more addictive substances such as opium, morphine or cocaine. • Remedies for respiratory ailments were often nothing more than cherry flavoring and heroin.
Food and Drug Acts • Laws were passed to impose stricter standards on medicines and homes remedies that were being sold and distributed without proper testing. • We were actually poisoning ourselves to death!