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Affect and Mood. Definition. The external and dynamic manifestations of a person's internal emotional state

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  • The external and dynamic manifestations of a person's internal emotional state
  • A person's affect is the expression of emotion or feelings displayed to others through facial expressions, hand gestures, voice tone, and other emotional signs such as laughter or tears.
  • Affect fluctuates according to emotional state.
  • A facial, vocal, or gestural behavior that serves as an indicator of affect

APA, 2006

  • Affect can mean a instinctual reaction to stimulation occurring before the typical cognitive processes considered necessary for the formation of a more complex emotion.
  • Many theorist suggest that affect is a post-cognitive process.
  • affective reactions as liking, disliking, evaluation, or the experience of pleasure or displeasure each result from a different prior cognitive process that makes a variety of content discriminations and identifies features, examines them to find value, and weighs them according to their contributions
pre or post cognitive
Pre or Post Cognitive
  • Affective reactions can occur without extensive perceptual and cognitive encoding and can be made sooner and with greater confidence than cognitive judgments
  • Affect can be both pre- and post-cognitive: initial emotional responses produce thoughts, which produce affect
influential factors
Influential Factors
  • A narrow reinforcement model of emotion allows other perspectives about how affect influences emotional development.
  • Temperament, cognitive development,socialization patterns, and the idiosyncrasies of one's family or subculture might interact in non-linear ways. For example, the temperament of a highly reactive/low self-soothing infant may "disproportionately" affect the process of emotion regulation in the early months of life
three main categories
three main categories
  • Valence
  • Arousal
  • Motivational intensity
  • Valence is the positive-to-negative evaluation of the subjectively experienced state.
  • Emotional valence is defined as referring to the emotion’s consequences, eliciting circumstances, or subjective feel or attitude
  • Arousal is by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and can be measured subjectively.
  • Arousal is a construct that is closely related to motivational intensity but they differ because motivation requires action implications while arousal does not
motivational intensity
Motivational intensity
  • Refers to impulsion to act.
  • It is the strength of urge to move toward or away from a stimulus.
  • Simply moving is not considered approach motivation without a motivational urge present
three dimensions
Three Dimensions
  • All three of these categories are important when looking at the effect of affective states on cognitive scope.
  • Initially, it was thought that positive affects broadened cognitive scope whereas negative affects narrowed cognitive scope
clinical practice
Clinical Practice
  • Affect is described by labelling the apparent emotion conveyed by the person's nonverbal behavior (anxious, sad etc.), and also by using the parameters of appropriateness, intensity, range, reactivity and mobility.
  • Affect may be described as appropriate or inappropriate to the current situation, and as congruent or incongruent with their thought content.
  • The intensity of the affect may be described as normal, blunted affect, exaggerated, flat, heightened or overly dramatic. A flat or blunted affect is associated with schizophrenia, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder; heightened affect might suggest mania, and an overly dramatic or exaggerated affect might suggest certain personality disorders.
clinical practice1
Clinical Practice
  • Mobility refers to the extent to which affect changes during the interview: the affect may be described as mobile, constricted, fixed, immobile or labile.
  • The person may show a full range of affect, in other words a wide range of emotional expression during the assessment, or may be described as having restricted affect.
  • The affect may also be described as reactive, in other words changing flexibly and appropriately with the flow of conversation, or as unreactive.
social interaction
Social Interaction
  • Affect, emotion, or feeling is displayed to others through facial expressions, hand gestures, posture, voice characteristics, and other physical manifestation.
  • Affect displays vary between and within cultures
  • These emotional and affective communication provide channels for social interactions
  • Emotional state with an intense and constant background
  • Moods are basic psychological states that can occur as a reaction to an event or can surface for no apparent external cause.
  • Mood can affect an individual’s judgment and perception of objects and events
  • Mood can manipulate how individuals interpret and translate the world around them, and can also direct their behavior
mood affect difference
Mood-Affect: Difference
  • Mood, like emotion, is an affective state. However, an emotion tends to have a clear focus, while mood tends to be more unfocused and diffused
clinical practice2
Clinical Practice

Types of mood:

  • Neutral
  • Euthymic
  • Dysphoric
  • Euphoric
  • Angry
  • Anxious
  • Apathetic
altered states
Altered States
  • Alexithymic individuals may be unable to describe their subjective mood state.
  • An individual who is unable to experience any pleasure may be suffering from anhedonia.