New Asian Empires 1200 - 1800 • The Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empires • The Mughal Empire • The Ming and the Qing Dynasty • Medieval Japan and Korea • In Asia, the period from 1200 to 1800, was a time of great empires and shifts in power. • From east of the Mediterranean Sea to India, strong Muslim rulers built large empires. • In China a new dynasty sought to revive the traditions neglected under the Mongols, while a military society rose in Japan
1200 - 1800 2. The Mughal Empire-Muslims Rule in India • Mughal rulers created a powerful empire in which military might and artistic culture flourished. • After the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 500’s, India broke apart into a number of small kingdoms. • For several centuries, no single ruler emerged to take charge of all India.
1200 - 1800 The Arrival of Islam • Arab Muslim traders arrived in India for the first time. • Over time, some Muslims traders settled in Indian towns, where they peacefully lived beside Hindus and Buddhists. • The next Muslims to arrive, however, were not so peaceful • Early 700’s, Muslim raiders invaded and conquered the area of Sind (Pakistan) • By 1000, they reached Afghanistan. • By 1200, most of northern India was under Muslim control
1200 - 1800 The Delhi Sultanate • Once the Muslims gained control, they established a new government for the region. • Based in the city of Delhi • Rulers were tolerate of traditional Indian practices. • As a result, a new culture emerged – a new language, Urdu, formed from a combination of Arabic and Sanskirt.
1200 - 1800 A New Empire Mughal • The Delhi Sultante remained strong for about 300 years. • By the early 1500s, however, its power was weakening, and left India wide open for invasion.
1200 - 1800 Babur • A Young Central Asian named Zahir ud-Din, better known as Babur “the tiger” • Failed to take over China and turned to India. • 1526 – defeated the rulers of Delhi and founded the Mughal Empire. • Persian for Mongol • Reigned as India’s first Muslim Empire and were one of the great civilizations in history. • Best known for its wealth and power
1200 - 1800 Akbar the Great • Akbar the Great took over after the death of Babur. • One of the greatest of all Mughal rulers. • Did everything he could to win his people’s loyalty. • He promoted religious tolerance. • He encouraged discussions and debates among Muslims, Hindus, Christians, and other religions.
1200 - 1800 Height of the Empire • Babur and Akbar laid the foundation for a powerful empire. • The rulers who followed them built upon that foundation and raised Mughal India to new heights of power and wealth.
1200 - 1800 Jahangir • Jahangir took power after the death of his father, Akbar. • Known as a good ruler, despite his ruthless start. • Practiced religious toleration, supported the arts and adopted many Persian influences into Indian society. • Wife Nur Jahan – born in Persia. • Sikhism – founded by Guru Nanak – blended Islam and Hinduism – One god, but believe in reincarnation
1200 - 1800 Shah Jahan • Jahangir’s son an successor – Shah Jahan • A Cultural Golden Age • Followed same practices as his father. (except religious tolerance) • Taj Mahal – greatest example of Mughal achievement – built as a tomb for Shah Jahan’s beloved wife. • New capital of India- Delhi – at the heart a Peacock Throne- symbol of the Dynasty
1200 - 1800 Aurangzeb • In 1657, Shah Jahan became extremely ill. • His sons, thinking their father was going to die, began to maneuver to take the throne. • War broke out among them. • Aurangzeb, one of his sons, captured his father and brought him one of his son’s heads and declared himself emperor. • Supported the growth of the Sunni Islam • Increased the empire to its largest size.
1200 - 1800 Decline the Mughal Empire • His actions marked the beginning of the end for the empire. • Due to harsh measures during his reign, frequent rebellions broke out in the late 1600s. • Civil War broke out and invaders poured into India from the north.
1200 - 1800 3. The Ming and Qing Dynasty • During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China prospered, but the empire entered a period of isolation in response to increasing European contact.
1200 - 1800 The Ming Dynasty • 1279 –Mongol leader Kublai Khan conquered China and founded the Yuan Dynasty. • After the death of Khan, China became ripe for rebellion and led to the Ming Dynasty. • Hongwu, “vastly martial” –founder of the Ming Dynasty – overthrew the last of the Mongol emperor. • Worked to rebuild China. • Reforms – reduced taxes and improved agriculture and trade and at the same time restored traditional Chinese practices, such as Confucianism and civil service examinations for government positions.
1200 - 1800 The Forbidden City • Yonglo – successor of Hongwo – moved Ming Capital to Beijing, a city northeast of China. • The Forbidden City – a vast imperial city surrounded by high walls.
1200 - 1800 Ming Sea Voyages • Zheng He – 1405 and 1433 – Chinese Muslim Admiral, led seven voyages around the Indian Ocean as far as Africa. • He sailed with a fleet of 300 ships. (included trading ships called junks as well as immense treasure ships, each 400 feet long. • He voyages demonstrated China’s growing sea power.
1200 - 1800 Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages • First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. • Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip]. • Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. • Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. • Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 • Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 • Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work. • Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 • Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam • 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.
1200 - 1800 Ming contact with Europeans • 1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.
1200 - 1800 Ming Society • Foreign Relations – policy to end voyages led to a period of isolationism from the outside world. • Why? The arrival of Europeans and Christians interfered with traditional Chinese practices that were already ruined by the Mongol Empire. • Metteo Ricci – Italian Jesuit priest who learned Chinese and adopted many Chinese customs. • In exchange, he introduced mathematics and science from Europe.
1200 - 1800 Ming Decline • In late 1500s, Ming Dynasty began to weaken. • High taxes, weak leaders, and crop failures created harsh economic times. • Manchu – a people from Manchuria swept into Beijing and took the capital. • The last Ming emperor killed himself to avoid capture. • The Manchu then formed their own dynasty and gave it a Chinese name –Qing.
1200 - 1800 Qing Dynasty • The Qing Dynasty, 1644- 1911 – became the last dynasty in 3,500 years of imperial rule in China. • Under Manchu rule, China again grew prosperous and expanded to its largest size in history.
1200 - 1800 China under Qing Rule • To win the support of opposition to many Chinese, the Manchu showed respect for their Chinese customs and maintained Confucian traditions. • Civil Service and government positions were distributed equally among Chinese and Manchu. • Kangxi and his grandson Qianlong – reduced taxes for peasants and expanded the empire into parts of Central Asia. • Agricultural production and population rose and the economy thrived due to better transportation and growing domestic and foreign markets.
1200 - 1800 Qing Foreign Relations • 1793- Lord George Macartney tried to change China’s isolationist policies. • He came to China to discuss expanding trade. • Emperor Qianlong thought British goods were inferior and demanded that he kowtow (kneel)’ Macartney refused. • At that time, China was one of the more advanced civilizations in the world.
1200 - 1800 Qing Decline • China’s isolationism and refusal to enter the world market eventually toppled the Qing Dynasty – and imperial rule.
1200 - 1800 Ming and Qing Culture • Under the two empires, China made many developments in the arts and literature. • Ming artisans produced exquisite blue and white porcelain. Valuable trading item • Rising literacy rates contributed to the growth or popular fiction. • Cao Zhan wrote the novel Dream of the Red Chamber – considered China’s greatest novel, examines the decline of an upper-class Chinese family.
1200 - 1800 Imperial China’s Impact on History • Removed religion from morality. • Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. • Mandate of Heaven • Secular law. • Valued history The Dynastic Cycle