Ottoman Empire • Ghazis – militaristic Muslim soldiers led by Osman I took control of Anatolia (Turkey). • Osman’s son Orham spread the empire to the Balkans (Southeast Europe). • A successful military helped the Ottomans. • They would kidnap Christian boys to train as Muslim soldiers known as Janissaries.
Ottoman Empire • Under Mehmed II the Ottomans goal was to take over Constantinople, the Byzantine capital. • With the help of cannons the Ottomans took the Byzantine city over and renamed it Istanbul. • Mehmed II transformed the city into a Muslim haven. (And turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque) Mosque in Istanbul, not Constantinople.
Ottoman Empire • Empire reached its height under Suleyman I known as “the magnificent” and “lawgiver” • Ottoman’s expanded through Hungary and the Mediterranean. • Suleyman was tolerant of other religions but heavily taxed the Non-Muslims. • Weak heirs weakened the empire, but it still lasted into the 1900’s. Suleyman I
Safavid Empire • Persian Shia Muslims • Led to conflict with Sunni Muslims (the majority) • Founded by Esma’il (14 year old boy) • Took the title of Shah (Persian for King) • Gained control of what it now Iraq and Iran • Rivals were Sunni Empires of the Ottomans and Uzbeks. • 1514 Safavids defeated by the Ottomans Shah Esma’il (Ismail)
Safavid Empire • ‘Abbas becomes shah in 1588. • Considered the greatest Safavid leader • Strengthened government, military, and brought gun powder to the empire. • The Persian carpet industry helped bring wealth to the empire, and establish it as a major Muslim civilization. • Lasted until 1722.
The Mughal Empire • India’s first Muslim empire founded by Babur in 1526. • Akbar the Great (Babur’s son) took over at 13 and was the greatest Mughal leader. • Akbar was tolerant of other religions and did NOT tax Non-Muslims. Akbar the Great
Mughal Empire • Jahangir (Akbar’s son) continued religious tolerance. • Jahangir often clashed with the Sikhs who opposed him. • Sikhism combines Hinduism and Islam (mainly in Pakistan). • Sikhs believe in one god like Muslims, but believe in reincarnation like the Hindus. A Sikh
Mughal Empire • Shah Jahan (Jahangir’s son) built the Taj Mahal for his wife and promoted literature and arts. • Aurangzeb increased the Mughal empires size. • Did away with religious tolerance and promoted only Sunni Islam. • Aurangzeb’s STRICT rule led to rebellions and a weakened empire. • Eventually the British would take over in India. Taj Mahal
Ming and Qing Dynasties • Ming Dynasty founded by Hongwu • 1368-1644 • China grew to takeover Korea, Mongolia, and parts of Central and Eastern Asia. • Yonglo (Hongwu’s son) moved capital to Beijing • Zheng He a sailor took seven voyages around the Indian Ocean to Africa • Helped Chinese sea power • Sailed to America!? The Ming Empire
Ming • China went into Isolation for fear of a European takeover • New crops (corn, potatoes), silk, and porcelain helped China flouris • Poor crop seasons / bad rulers led to the Ming decline • Manchus (from Manchuria) took over China / set up Qing dynasty (1644-1911) Porcelain Goods
Lord Macartney Qing • Last dynasty of 3,500 years of rule • Kept Ming policy in place • made distinctions between them and Han(Chinese) • Chinese had to wear a braid called a queue • Kangxi and Qianlong expanded empire / reduced taxes. • 1763 Lord McCartney brought British goods to China for trade • Chinese felt English goods were inferior Emperor Qianlong
Zheng He’s Voyageshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c202QvQHn10&feature=related – (start at 5:58)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LStpqTmILE • What is a Eunuch? • How many ships did he plan on building? • How many workers where required? • What were the length of the ships? • What made the ships float so well? • What plant was this design based on?
7. What were the sails made from? 8. What year did Zheng He first set sail? How many years was this before Columbus? 9. In 28 years, how many countries did Zheng He visit? 10. What year did the voyages end? 11. Where did Zheng He die? 12. What happened to the ships once the voyages stopped? 13. What happened to the records of his voyages? 14. The rebuilding of the Great Wall was part of what new Chinese policy? 15. Who invaded the Ming to create the Qing empire?
On a piece of paper write three things that people in America might do for the sake of being beautiful.
Japan and Korea • Feudal Japan – for military service noble landowners gave property/payment to samurai warriors. • Samurai were skilled warriors. • Bushido – Samurai code of ethics = loyalty, obedience, courageous, and honorable. • Samurai who did not follow Bushido had to commit seppuku (ritual suicide). • Many Samurai adopted Zen Buddhism.
Japan • 1192 Minamoto Yoritomo became first shogun (general). • Had more power than the emperor. • In 1281 a Mongol attack was stopped by storms that the Japanese called - Kamikaze (divine wind). • With no central government, warlords called Daimyos gained control of power. Minamoto Yoritomo
Japan • 1600 Tokugawa Ieyashu controlled Japan. • Beginning of Tokugawa regime (1600-1867). • Tokugawa moved capital to Edo (Tokyo) • Under Tokugawa, the feudal structure was more rigid. • Warrior Class=emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai • Peasant=80% of Japan’s population • Artisan=lived in castles and made goods (armor/swords) • Merchants=not honored because they did not produce anything. Tokugawa Ieyashu
Japan • A period of peace saw Samurai struggle and many turned to banditry or farming. • Only allowed Dutch into the country for trade • Japan’s art grew • Haikus - poems about nature • Kabuki theatre Kabuki Masks
Medieval Korea • 1392 Chosun (or Yi) dynasty formed in Korea and lasted until 1910. • Government based on Confucianism. • Due to attacks by Japan and China, Korea isolated itself from the world. • It was given the title the “Hermit Kingdom” because of this isolationism.