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SPORTS INJURIES. Chronic and Acute. Chronic injuries are caused by continuous stress over a long period of time i.e. Golfers elbow, tennis elbow, shin splints Acute are caused by sudden stress i.e. Fractures, strains, sprains, concussion. How to prevent injuries.

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chronic and acute
Chronic and Acute
  • Chronic injuries are caused by continuous stress over a long period of time
  • i.e. Golfers elbow, tennis elbow, shin splints
  • Acute are caused by sudden stress
  • i.e. Fractures, strains, sprains, concussion
how to prevent injuries
How to prevent injuries
  • Use correct equipment / clothing
  • Environment
  • Correct technique
  • Rules / officials
  • Warm up / cool down
  • Equal opponents
soft tissue
Soft Tissue
  • OPEN or CLOSED
  • Open – skin damaged i.e. Cuts, blisters, grazes
  • Closed – no external bleeding i.e. Bruises, strains, sprains, dislocations, cartilage damage
hard tissue
Hard Tissue
  • Bone damage
  • OPEN (compound) or CLOSED (simple)
  • Usually accompanied by bruising and swelling (vessel damage)
  • Lots of pain (damaged nerves)
stress fractures
Stress Fractures
  • Most bone injuries are acute
  • Stress fracture is Chronic and is a crack along the length of the bone
  • Shin splints are a form of stress fractures.
joint injuries
Joint Injuries

The knee Joint is a common place for an injury to occur. What other joints are common for injuries?

Using the diagram of the knee joint indicate where injuries could happen?

What sports are they more likely in?

What treatment should be carried out?

categories of injuries
Categories of injuries
  • SOFT TISSUE / HARD TISSUE
  • OPEN / CLOSED
  • ACUTE / CHRONIC

Examples

A closed hard tissue injury…

An open soft tissue injury…

A closed soft tissue injury…

An acute soft tissue injury…

A chronic hard tissue injury…

treatment soft tissue
Treatment – soft tissue
  • Rest – stop immediately
  • Ice – blood vessels contract to stop further swelling
  • Compression – reduce swelling (not too tight)
  • Elevation – blood flow reduced as working against gravity
treatment fractures dislocations
Treatment – fractures /dislocations
  • Do not move the casualty
  • Call for medical assistance
  • Do not use RICE
  • Immobilise the limb if possible
  • Ensure the casualty is comfortable / warm
  • Stay with them in case of shock
  • Do not put any pressure on the part / joint
other injuries
Other injuries
  • Concussion – put player into recovery position if unconscious, if not pass on advice for delayed concussion
  • Complete the crossword on ‘other injuries’ using the words at the bottom of the sheet
  • Tip – Heat Exhaustion is followed by Heat stroke (which is more severe)
hypothermia dehydration
Hypothermia / Dehydration
  • Hypothermia – body temp falls below 35ºC
  • Exposed to extreme cold – mountain climb
  • Pulse rate slower - result in unconsciousness
  • Re-warming start from the body core
  • Dehydration – water loss through sweat, urine, breathing (lose electrolytes)
  • Can lead to liver glycogen deficiency and low blood glucose levels
unconsciousness and emergency procedures
Unconsciousness and emergency procedures
  • How it happens – blow to the head, heart attack, fainting, stroke, shock, asphyxia
  • When? Impact with something, raising pulse too high, blocking or compressing the wind pipe
  • What to do – send for medical help and put in recovery position
d r a b c
D R A B C
  • Danger – are you or the casualty in danger
  • Response – talk to casualty
  • Airway - is it clear, tilt head back
  • Breathing – check chest rising, use cheek to feel for breath
  • Circulation – check for pulse
recovery position
Recovery position
  • Teacher demonstration of recovery
  • Pupils pair up to practice
cpr cardio pulmonary resuscitation
CPR Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
  • This procedure is made up of Mouth to Mouth and Cardiac massage
  • Mouth to mouth is only used if the casualty has a pulse and is NOTbreathing
  • If they have NOpulse you need to add cardiac massage
what to do
What to do?
  • Using the following words fill in the blanks to complete the worksheet on Mouth to Mouth and Cardiac Massage

down

colour

Breathe

away

Lungs

improvement

head

breathe out

open

once

nose

breathing

chest

15

ventilation

arrives

pulse

two