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Governance: Local Administration and Development. An Overview of Terms. Governance Issues. Nature of the Debate: Three Tracks Governance Civil Society Local Government. Overview. The Governance Concept: Issues 1. Sovereignty- Legal Autonomy (International Law- Defined by Diplomacy)

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Governance: Local Administration and Development

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Governance:Local Administration and Development An Overview of Terms

    2. Governance Issues • Nature of the Debate: Three Tracks • Governance • Civil Society • Local Government

    3. Overview The Governance Concept: Issues 1. Sovereignty- Legal Autonomy (International Law- Defined by Diplomacy) 2. Transitional vs. Developing Societies

    4. Governance and Sovereignty A Renewed Interest- Transition "[T]ransformation (and globalization) has led to a reinvention of government and what it does" - Bruce Parrott in Dawisha and Parrott

    5. Transitional vs. Developing Society • Governance- Transitional vs. Developing states- • There has been a discovery of “new” problems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia with the END OF THE COLD WAR Janine Wedel Book • Fragile vs. Collapsed States

    6. Governance: The Cultural Dimension • Issue of the Week: Samuel P. Huntingon • Robert Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts • The Issue: Is there a “Clash of Cultures” • Roman Catholic • Orthodox • Islam

    7. Governance: an Overview of Issues • Basic Terms: The Environment of Development Governance Revisited: • Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown

    8. Governance, and theLocal State • Sovereignty • Authority to Govern (Ostrom) • Presumption of Independence • A National Government status given by International Community and by use of International Law

    9. Governance Issues: Grass Roots or Micro-Level Need to Focus on Local Government (not Local State) • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures

    10. Governance Issues Civil Society • Associations and organizations that are beyond the clan and the family and short of the state (does not include state organs) • Relationship to Democracy

    11. Democracy The Nature of the Debate

    12. Types of Democracy Direct Democracy- • Actual direct participation of a population in decision-making about laws and regulations • Town hall or village model

    13. Types of Democracy: Terms Indirect Democracy-Representation • Some form of representative democracy • Existence of various diverse interest associations and groups within society

    14. Polyarchy • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues • Competitive Pluralism

    15. Types of Democracy, cont. • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism) • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy

    16. Democracy: What is it? “It is only when men learn what it means to be free, and struggle to maintain proper limits upon the exercise of authority so that no one is allowed to become master of the others that human beings have the possibility of creating mutual relationships which they may freely enter and leave as they seek mutually productive patterns of human development." - Vincent Ostrom

    17. Democracy • Limited • Institutionalized • Non-Zero Sum (Win Win)

    18. Democracy: What is it? The Cynic Revised “The policy makers have rational interests--to develop their countries, to improve the condition of their people, to acquire or stay in power, or to steal as much as possible.“- Peter Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice

    19. James Madison and Democracy The Eighteenth Century Cynic 1. The problem with majorities 2. Tyranny 3. Factions

    20. Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy • Problem with Populism • Mob Justice • Lack of Minority rights • Shifting majorities and tolerance • Problem with Plebiscites • Size and the Need for Indirect Representation

    21. Governance Failure and Sovereignty • Rules of the Game politics: • Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics • "Splintering” • Break up of states--centrifugal forces • Goal: Interest Group Liberalism • Civil Society as organizational • Not the individual or the mass

    22. Governance and Sovereignty • The need for apathy? • Constitutional vs. Social stability • Institutional structures: • Checks and balances • The Institutional State • What is the "Institutional State?” Why is it important?

    23. Civil Society And Democracy • Definition: • Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests "Beyond the family but short of the state” - Hegal "Human Rights, Basic Needs and the Stuff of Citizenship”- First vs. Second vs. Third generation

    24. Human Rights- The Debate First Level- Individual- speech, religion, association Second Level- health, education, welfare Third Level- employment, economic security

    25. Civil Society Organizations 1. NGOs, CBOs, PVOs (Clark- Democratizing Development) 2. Grassroots, interests, not for profits (neutrality) 3. Nationalist Groups- role of ethnicity, religion and class 4. Privatization- Why not “for profits?” 5. Corporatism vs. clientelism- The Organic nature of society (Vincent Ostrom)- Corporatism vs. establishing the rule of law

    26. Break • Ten Minutes

    27. Decentralization • The Local Governance Debate

    28. Decentralized Governance • Subsidiarity- higher units of Government should not do what can be done by lower units

    29. What Local Government Does Services- Depend Upon: • Fiscal/budget allocation • Taxes and transfers • Planning • Strategic priorities • Managing • Implementing

    30. The Development Debate States will necessarily remain central actors in development policy and development management." - Milton Esman

    31. Local Government and theLocal State • Local State vs. Local Government • Functional vs. Territorial Control • Devolution • Urban vs. Rural • Urban linked with Rural

    32. Weak Weak Strong Strong State-mezzo Weak Strong State Societal Linkages Central State - Macro SOFT STATE…………………………….PREDATORY STATE Mono-State…...INTERGOVERNMENTAL Systems in place.…..Local State Civil Society - Micro Local - SOFT STATE….………………LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    33. The Primary Unit of Government • Municipality: Lowest level with Bureaucrats • English/American • Town vs. county (Rural vs. Urban) • Continental European • Commune (no distinction between rural and urban)

    34. Decentralization and Local Government: Models • Devolution • Deconcentration • Delegation • Privatization

    35. Deconcentration • Functional vs. Prefectoral • Prefectoral integrated • Prefectoral unintegrated

    36. Control Systems Functional Home Affairs Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor Council Public Works Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office District Labor Office

    37. Control Systems Prefectoral - Integrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor District Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office District Labor Office Public Works Office Council/Chief

    38. Control Systems Prefectoral - Unintegrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor Police District Office Police Council/ Chief Public Works Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office District Labor Office

    39. Discussion Discussion One: What is unique about each part of the world as seen from our authors? Discussion Two: Limited Government- What is it? Discussion Three: Command Economy?

    40. Discussion • Isabel Allende, “Clarisa,” • Case Study: The Peddler • Dr. Veraswami (Burmese Days): • "Why is it you are always abusing the pukka sahibs as you call them. They are the salt of the earth. Consider the great administrators who have made British India what it is.” • Case Study: Burma

    41. Discussion • Why do States Fail? • “Balkan Ghosts,” vs. Iraq, Somalia, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Sudan • Compare with Other Area Readings