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Mitosis – Cellular Division
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  1. Mitosis – Cellular Division

  2. 30 hours later

  3. 20 hours later

  4. Development of the morula

  5. Blastocyst • 2 types of cells: -cells to become placenta -inner cell mass (stem cells) Stem cells are pluripotent -have ability to read all DNA in their nuclei. -can become any cell In 5 to 6 days lose this ability Blastocyst implants in uterus Photo: NIH

  6. Gastrula

  7. Fig. 13-2b (b) Redwoods

  8. 100 µm Fig. 12-2a (a) Reproduction

  9. 200 µm Fig. 12-2b (b) Growth and development

  10. 20 µm Fig. 12-2c (c) Tissue renewal

  11. 0.5 mm Fig. 13-2a Parent Bud Asexual reproduction (a) Hydra

  12. Bacteria Binary fission (asexual reproduction

  13. G1 checkpoint The cell cycle Fig. 12-14 Control system S G1 G2 M M checkpoint G2 checkpoint

  14. G0 G1 checkpoint Fig. 12-15 G1 G1 (b) Cell does not receive a go-ahead signal Cell receives a go-ahead signal

  15. DNA – lots of it in a small space chromosome chromatin

  16. Fig. 12-UN3

  17. 0.5 µm Chromosomes DNA molecules Chromo- some arm Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Fig. 12-4 Centromere Sister chromatids Separation of sister chromatids Centromere Sister chromatids

  18. INTERPHASE G1 S Cytokinesis Mitosis G2 Fig. 12-UN1 MITOTIC (M) PHASE Prophase Telophase and Cytokinesis Prometaphase Anaphase Metaphase

  19. Fig. 12-20 Lymph vessel Tumor Blood vessel Cancer cell Glandular tissue Metastatic tumor Cancer cells invade neigh- boring tissue. A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body. 4 2 1 3

  20. Fig. 12-3 20 µm

  21. Fig. 12-UN4

  22. Fig. 12-UN6

  23. G2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Chromatin (duplicated) Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Early mitotic spindle Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere Aster Nonkinetochore microtubules Fig. 12-6b Kinetochore Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore microtubule Nucleolus

  24. Telophase and Cytokinesis Metaphase Anaphase Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Fig. 12-6d Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming Centrosome at one spindle pole Spindle

  25. Aster Centrosome Sister chromatids Microtubules Chromosomes Metaphase plate Fig. 12-7 Kineto- chores Centrosome 1 µm Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore microtubules 0.5 µm

  26. Nucleus Chromatin condensing 10 µm Fig. 12-10 Chromosomes Cell plate Nucleolus 2 4 1 Prophase Prometaphase 3 Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 5

  27. Fig. 12-9a 100 µm Cleavage furrow Daughter cells Contractile ring of microfilaments (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM)

  28. Fig. 12-9b Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell 1 µm Cell plate New cell wall Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM)

  29. cytokinesis Fig. 12-9 Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell 1 µm 100 µm Cleavage furrow Cell plate New cell wall Daughter cells Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM)

  30. Fig. 12-UN2

  31. Fig. 12-UN5 Mitosis video

  32. RESULTS 5 30 4 Fig. 12-16 20 3 % of dividing cells (– ) Protein kinase activity (– ) 2 10 1 0 0 400 100 200 300 500 Time (min)

  33. M M S G1 G1 M G1 S G2 G2 MPF activity Cyclin concentration Fig. 12-17 Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle S G1 Cdk Cyclin accumulation M Degraded cyclin G2 G2 Cdk checkpoint Cyclin is degraded Cyclin MPF (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle

  34. S G2 M S G2 M G1 M G1 G1 Fig. 12-17a MPF activity Cyclin concentration Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle

  35. G1 S Fig. 12-17b Cdk Cyclin accumulation M G2 Degraded cyclin G2 checkpoint Cdk Cyclin is degraded Cyclin MPF (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle

  36. APPLICATION Fig. 13-3 TECHNIQUE 5 µm Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome

  37. APPLICATION Fig. 13-3a

  38. TECHNIQUE 5 µm Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Fig. 13-3b Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome

  39. Key Maternal set of chromosomes (n = 3) 2n = 6 Paternal set of chromosomes (n = 3) Fig. 13-4 Two sister chromatids of one replicated chromosome Centromere Two nonsister chromatids in a homologous pair Pair of homologous chromosomes (one from each set)

  40. Mitosis – Word BankAsters Centrioles Chromatids Chromosome Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear membrane Spindle FibersKinetochore Cleavage Furrow