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Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 6 Products of the Hive. Honey – Wax – Pollen – Venom - Royal Jelly “ The devil made the wasp, but God made the honey bee ” ~ Old Germanic Saying. Key Points Products of the Hive. History of Beekeeping Modern Apiculture Removeable Top Bar Frames Bee Space

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Pests plagues politics lecture 6 products of the hive

Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 6Products of the Hive

Honey – Wax – Pollen – Venom - Royal Jelly

“The devil made the wasp, but God made the honey bee”

~ Old Germanic Saying


Key points products of the hive
Key PointsProducts of the Hive

  • History of Beekeeping

  • Modern Apiculture

    • Removeable Top Bar Frames

    • Bee Space

  • Honeybee products

    • Honey

    • Wax

    • Pollen, venom, royal jelly

    • Pollination Services


Prehistoric relations
Prehistoric relations

  • Prehistoric records show a honey bee/human connection going back 6,000 BP

  • Humans were essentially another

    predator of the honey bee

Smoking the hive

Motopo Hills, Zimbabwe, ca. 10,000 yrs ago

Mesolithic cave painting

Cueva de la Arana, Bicorp, Spain


Historic record
Historic Record

  • Humans eventually began providing cavities for honey bees to nest in.

  • Earliest records are Egyptian


Egyptian beekeeping
Egyptian beekeeping

Harvesting honey combs (right) and packing honey (left)

ca. 1450 BC, West Bank, Luxor


Apiculture
Apiculture

  • The “management” of honey bees

  • Primary species utilized:

    • Apismellifera L. – The European honey bee

    • Two Biotypes:

      • European – adapted for temperate climates

      • African – adapted for tropical climates

    • Ca. 27 subspecies/biotypes in the world.

  • Honey bees to the western hemisphere ca. 1622 by European colonists


Why keep bees
WHY KEEP BEES

  • Provide valuable products for our comfort, pleasure, & nutrition.

  • These are:

    • Honey - 200 million pounds per annum (U.S.)

    • Pollination - 16 billion $$ of agricultural product

    • Wax, Pollen, Royal Jelly, Venom


Prior to 1853 beekeeping was

Prior to 1853 Beekeeping was

Inefficient/Wasteful

  • Skep hive – used for 2000 years

    • made of mud, clay or straw

    • unable to inspect for pests, disease

    • harvest destructive


The modern era of beekeeping
The “Modern” Era of Beekeeping

  • Started in 1853 with the publication of the book THE HIVE & THE HONEYBEE

  • Written by L.L. Langstroth

    • The “Father” of modern beekeeping

  • Introduced the concept of “bee space”

  • From which the TOP-OPENING, MOVABLE FRAME HIVE evolved.


Pests plagues politics lecture 6 products of the hive

Bee Space – when bees have less than 1 cm to move around in, they will not build wax or propolis attachments to the wall of a hive, allowing for the removal of frames

Bee Space

1/4th to 3/8th inch



Honey
HONEY

  • A saturated solution of carbohydrates

    • ca. 17% water

    • ca. 82.5% sugar:

      • fructose 38%

      • glucose 31%

      • maltose 7%

      • sucrose 1.5%

      • et alia 6%

    • ca. 0.5% protein, minerals, vitamins &

      • MAGIC


Honey1
Honey

  • Produced from plant nectar

    • Primarily from flowers

    • Also extra-floral nectaries

  • Precursor of nectar is:

    • Phloem sap

    • Most often a dilute solution of sucrose

  • Essentially bees do two things:

    • Dehydrate

    • Enzymatic “inversion” of sucrose to glucose & fructose


Pests plagues politics lecture 6 products of the hive

FYI

+


Honey2
HONEY

  • The first sweetener (long before sugar cane)

  • Our first alcoholic beverage(mead)

  • Production:

    • U.S. 200 million pounds per annum

    • World: two billion pounds per annum

  • Consumption:

    • U.S., one pound - Germany, four pounds

  • Myriad of minor uses

    • pharmacy - medicinal vehicle & taste corrective, wound dressing

    • cosmetics


  • Beeswax
    BEESWAX

    • COSMETICS

      • creams, lotions, lipstick

    • CANDLES

      • liturgical, Jewish, Greek Orthodox, but most of all the RCC.

    • BEEKEEPING

      • foundation beeswax

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceremonial_use_of_lights#Candles



    Beeswax1
    Beeswax

    • Produced from four pairs of sub-dermal glands on the underside of the abdomen of a worker bee.

    • When the bee is 10 to 18 days old

    • Produced as small, translucent flakes

    • Precursor is honey & nectar (carbohydrates)



    Beeswax composition
    BEESWAX COMPOSITION

    • Over 300 identified individual components

      • hydrocarbons (14%)

      • monoesters (35%)

      • diesters (14%)

      • hydroxy polyesters (8%)

      • free acids (12%)


    Royal jelly
    Royal Jelly

    • Definition

      • the glandular secretions of young worker bees (4-10 days old), produced by the hypopharyngeal in the head, used as food for larval bees.

    • Composition

      • 66% water

      • 14% protein

      • 14% carbohydrate

      • 5% lipid (fats & sterols)


    Pests plagues politics lecture 6 products of the hive

    Queen cell

    Royal jelly in cell


    Bee venom
    Bee Venom

    • Uses

      • As Pure Bee Venom for use in desensitization

      • As quackery for charlatans in treating a variety of neurological disorders.


    Venom
    VENOM

    • Composition

      • a mixture of proteins & peptides

        • melittin 50% dry wt

        • phospholipase A 12% dry wt

        • hyaluronidase <3% dry wt.

        • acid phosphatase <1% dry wt.

        • histamine <1% dry wt.


    Venom1
    VENOM

    • Melittin

      • lysis of blood & mast cells - release of histamine & serotonin from mast cells - depression of blood pressure & respiration.

    • Phospholipase A

      • cell lysis - pain - toxicity; synergistic with melittin

    • Hyaluronidase

      • hydrolyzes connective tissue - the spreading factor

    • Histamine

      • itching & pain

    • Acid phosphatase

      • involved in allergic reaction


    Pollen
    POLLEN

    • Plant male gametophyte

      • a reproductive structure that carries sperm

    • A primary food substance for bees

      • directly as food to older larvae

      • indirectly as the precursor for royal jelly

        {think of honey bees as specialized herbivores}


    Pollen composition
    POLLEN COMPOSITION

    • Protein

      • from 6 to 28%

    • Lipids

      • from 1 to 20%, but usually <5%

    • Sterols

      • <less than 0.5%

    • Additionally

      • sugars, starches, vitamins, minerals

    Pollen grain of chamomile flower


    Why eating pollen might not be such a good idea
    Why eating pollen might not be such a good idea!!

    • Economics

      $8 to $12 per pound

    • Nutrition

      = that of soybean flour

      Not quantifiable

    • Pesticide residues

      Especially fungicides

    • Allergies


    Greatest value of honey bees
    Greatest Value of {honey} Bees

    • Pollination

      • U.S. = 15 billion $/annum

      • Oregon = 600 million $/annum

    • Fiscal mainstay for commercial beekeepers in PNW.


    Key points products of the hive1
    Key PointsProducts of the Hive

    • History of Beekeeping

    • Modern Apiculture

      • Removeable Top Bar Frames

      • Bee Space

    • Honeybee products

      • Honey

      • Wax

      • Pollen, venom, royal jelly

      • Pollination Services