Renaissance and Reformation 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3
Italian Renaissance • The Renaissance was the rebirth of art and learning from 1350 to 1600. • Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and tried to outdo each other. • City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture. • linear perspective to show depth. • Sculptors created natural poses.
Niccolo Machiavelli • An Italian statesman and writer. • Considered one of the most significant political thinkers of the Renaissance. • His best-known work, The Prince. • Describes cunning and unscrupulous methods for rulers to gain and keep power. • “Machiavellian” • characterized as unscrupulous, treacherous, and cruel toward his political rivals, ”the end justifies the means”
Renaissance Architecture • Simple, elegant style, inherited from the classical Greek and Roman style. • Magnificent domed cathedrals. • Brunelleschi's’ cathedral of Florence. • St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.
Northern Renaissance • Especially strong in France, England, and Netherlands. • Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity. • Preferred language was Hebrew. • Strongly supported by the middle classes and lesser nobles. • Leading figures included Shakespeare, Erasmus, and Protestant reformers.
Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther (1483-1546) • Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517. • Attacked corruption in Catholic Church • Argument reproduced with the printing press. • Enthusiastic responses from average Christians. • By mid-16th century, half of Germany adopted Lutheranism. • Luther did not actually create Lutheranism, followers did.
Protestant Reformation • Reform spread outside Germany. • Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities and Netherlands. • Scandinavian kings liked the movement because it removed the Church as a rival. • English Reformation was sparked by King Henry VII’s desire to get a divorce.
Protestant Reformation • John Calvin. • Organized a model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s. • Calvinist missionaries were successful in France. • Calvinist reformation in Switzerland. • Presbyterian movement in Scotland.
Catholic Reformation • Early attempts to reform • Catholic cardinals and bishops call council in early 15th century. • Council of Constance deposes rival popes. • Attempts to assert authority over pope • Initial reforms • Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption. • Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform the church in Germany.
Catholic Reformation • Church’s reaction to Luther and the Protestants. • Charles V and the Church condemned. • Luther was excommunicated. • King Henry VIII condemned Luther. • Inquisition unleashed on the Protestants. • Spanish use government wealth to fund anti-Protestant movements.
Catholic Reformation • The Council of Trent. • 1545-1563 • Organized to reform the Roman Catholic Church. • Attacked corruption • Reaffirmed traditions. • Bible was valued as co-equal.
Catholic Reformation • The Society of Jesus. • Other wise known as “Jesuits”. • Founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540. • High standards in education. • Combated Protestants with logic, faith, and hard work. • Became confessors and advisors to the kings. • Worldwide missionaries.
Religious Conflicts and Wars. • Wars were as much social and political as they were religious. • Civil War in France. • French Calvinists (Huguenots) and Catholic League. • Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles. • Lasted 36 years. • 1562-1598 • Ended with a new dynasty in France.
Religious Conflicts and Wars. • Spanish Armada • War between Catholic Spain and Protestant England in 1588. • Spilled over from the conflict in the Netherlands. • Questions of the heir to the English throne. • Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth.
Religious Conflicts and Wars • Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against the rule of Catholic Spain. • Originally began as a revolt of all the Netherlands against Spain. • Eventually split the country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland). • Scottish Presbyterians revolt. • Expelled the Catholic Queen with England’s secret assistance. • Raised her kidnapped son as a Presbyterian.
Religious Conflicts and Wars • The Thirty Years’ War • 1618-1648 • Most destructive European war up until World War I. • Began as a local conflict in Bohemia. • Eventually involved most of Europe. • Devastated the Holy Roman Empire • Mainly the German states. • Lost 1/3 of the population. • The rise of Sweden and the Hapsburgs as a great powers. • Lowering Spain’s power. • Independence for Holland and Switzerland. • German was no longer “holy”, “Roman”, or an “empire”.
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3
Scientific Revolution • The re-conception of the universe. • The Ptolemaic universe. • A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres. • Could not account for the movements of the planets. • Compatible with the Christian concept of Creation. • The Copernican universe. • The sun was the center of the universe, 1543. • Implied that the earth was just another planet. • Science becomes the new authority and challenges the faith for control. • Johannes Kepler (1564-1642) • Demonstrated planetary orbits.
Scientific Revolution • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Located sunspots, moons on Jupiter, and mountains on the moon. • Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated modern law of inertia. • Tried by the Inquisition because his ideas challenged the Papal infallibility.
Scientific Revolution • Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686. • Mathematical explanations of laws govern movements of bodies. • His work symbolized the scientific revolution. • Direct observation • Mathematical reasoning
Enlightenment • Thinkers sought natural laws that governed human society. • Center was France. • Theory of progress was a major ideology. • Applied reason and science to society, government, and laws. • Voltaire (1694-1778) • Considered the father of the Enlightenment. • Religious liberty and individual freedom.
Enlightenment • Adam Smith • Laws of supply and demand determine price. • Montesquieu • Checks and balance in government. • Deism • Accepted the existence of a god. • Denied the supernatural teachings of Christianity. • “God the Clockmaker”. • Ordered the universe according to rational and natural laws.
Enlightenment • Impact of the Enlightenment • Weakened the influence of organized religion. • Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation. • Subjected society to rational analysis. • Promoted progress and prosperity. • Applied science to every day life and made science practical.