High Performance Green Label Coating use for Architectural Green Building (Part 1) By Mdm. Chang Jeng Ngo Star Chemical Manufacturers Pte. Ltd. Seamaster Paint Manufacturing Bhd (Technical Advisor)
Definition of Terms (a) Volatile Organic Compounds ( VOCs) : - Volatile Organic Compounds used in, or associated with for use of decorative coatings and which have an initial boiling point at standard pressure of less than or equal to 250°C. (b) VOC content : - The content of VOC, expressed in grams of VOC per litre, contained in a decorative coating when it is ready for use, including all tinters. (c) Water borne coatings : - The content of VOC, expressed in grams of VOC per litre, contained in a decorative coating, the viscosity of which is adjusted by the use of water. (d) Solvent borne coatings : - The content of VOC, expressed in grams of VOC per litre, contained in a decorative coating, the viscosity of which is adjusted by the use of organic solvent.
Environmental Health and Safety Concerns on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (1) VOCs are defined as solvents with initial boiling points less than 250°C. (2) These solvents are of concerns as they pose possible health hazards when breathed in. (3) Many of the VOCs are flammable and can cause fire and explosion. (4) Some solvents react with other chemicals to form dangerous substances. (5) VOCs may enter and affect the body through inhalation or absorption through skin. (6) Exposure to these VOCs solvents can cause acute or chronic effects. (7) Chronics effects upon exposure to VOCs depend on the nature of the solvent and may cause damage to organs specific to liver and kidney damage, damage to central nervous system or even could cause cancer. (8) VOCs with low flash point may cause fire hazards. Three elements that causes fire hazardous are :- fuel, oxygen and ignition source such as heat , are all needed to be present in the correct concentration for fire to start or explosion to occure. (a) oxygen : oxygen is present naturally in air around us (b) fuel : fuel keeps a fire burning (c) ignition source provides energy to ignite a fire
High Performance Green Label Coating use for Architectural Green Building (Part 2) By Mdm. Chang Jeng Ngo Star Chemical Manufacturers Pte. Ltd. Seamaster Paint Manufacturing Bhd (Technical Advisor)
A Radiant Heat Reflecting, Insulating, Thermal Barrier Energy Saving Green Label Paint The insulation paint microspheres are able to reflect, refract and block heat radiation and dissipate heat rapidly preventing heat transfer through the coating with as much as 90% of solar infrared rays and 85% of ultra violet rays being radiated back into the atmosphere.
Urban Heat Island • The exponential growth of urban areas has produced what is called the “ Urban Heat Island Effect” . • The temperature in the air above urban heat island can be as much as 6 - 7°C hotter than surrounding suburbs. - Higher air conditioning costs and greater consumption of energy. - Excess heat and increase energy production → causing air pollution and impact on global warming.
Additional Benefit of IR Reflections, Thermal Insulating Coating • Hard ceramics microspheres thermal insulation provide longer lasting durability which means that paint less often. • Exceptional stain and scrub resistance. • Ceramic are non-toxic and fire resistance. • Helps deaden sound. • Use on interior or exterior. • Environmentally friendly. • A hard smooth surface that resists corrosion, abrasion, mold and algae. • Ceramic microspheres are most effective at reflecting heat back to the source result in summer.
The Problem We Face • Heat Island Effect and High Energy Consumption : The new technology we require to solve above problem which we face …… Eco- Friendly and Energy Saving Water Borne Coating. • There are three types of Energy Saving Coating : (1) Heat Reflective Paint (Solar Reflection) - Paint formulated with IR reflective pigment including white pigment titanium dioxide. (2) Thermal Insulation Paint - Paint formulated with heat insulation materials. (3) Hybrid System Paint - Heat Reflective, Thermal Insulation type Paint formulated with IR reflective pigment and thermal insulation materials.
Ingredient and Formulation • Water borne polymer binders • Elastomeric acrylic and / or styrene acrylic for UV stability, flexibility, adhesion and non yellowing • Aliphatic polyurethane for toughness yet elastic, moisture barrier or waterproofing • Other acrylic resins • Heat insulating materials • Ceramic microsphere • reflective ceramic microsphere • insulative hollow ceramic microsphere - Ceramic microspheres by removing all gas insides which created a vacuum. Physics law states that nothing can move by conduction through a vacuum. • Hollow glass microsphere • IR reflective ceramic pigments • insulative hollow ceramic microsphere
Ingredient and Formulation • Inorganic pigments and extender • white pigments and fillers • titanium dioxide – excellent reflective • barium sulphate, calcium carbonate, etc • coloured with high IR reflective ceramic pigments • Liquid carrier • water • organic co-solvent (with “VOC” compliant type) • Additives • pigment dispersants • wetting agent • defoamers • biocides • UV and heat stabilizers • adhesion promoters • etc …… etc
Key Performance Properties Required and Test Methods PropertiesTest Methods (1) Thermal Conductivity (K value) ASTM E1530 (2) Solar Reflectivity ASTM E1866-97 Critical on heat insulation (3) Emissivity ASTM C1371-98 coating (4) Elongation / Flexibility ASTM 412 (5) Tensile Strength / Toughness ASTM 412 (6) Crack Bridging Capability ASTM 836 (7) UV & IR Resistance SS 5 Pt G4 (8) Algae and fungus Resistance SS 345
Green Label Paint Products Required Test Method • Ultra Violet region : wave length 295 to 400 nanometre, UV only accounts for roughly 5% of the solar energy that reaches the earth’s surface, it is a major contributor to the degradation of coatings.
Green Label Paint Products Required Test Method • Visible region : wave length 400 to 700 nanometre, roughly 50% of the solar energy make up the wave length that give us perception of colour. - eg : TiO2 pigment reflection heat ; Fe-Cr Oxide (inorganic black) pigment absorbing heat ; carbon black absorbing heat. • Infra Red region : wave length 700 to 2500 nanometre, 45% of the total solar energy is in the infrared region. The majority of the energy in the infrared range is found in the near infrared region (near IR) 700 to 1200 nm range. - eg : TiO2 pigment reflection heat ; Fe-Cr Oxide(inorganic black) pigment absorbing heat ; carbon black absorbing heat. Beyond 2500 nanometre there is little solar energy.
Reflective Pigments • There are two types of pigments, Inorganic pigments and Organic pigments. (i) Inorganic Pigments a) - Ordinary inorganic pigments (compounds) they are found in nature or synthesize. - They have proper and specific structures call as “Crystal Lattice Structure”. - In this crystal structure atoms of inorganic elements are situated in a regular repeating patterns. Inorganic pigments are oxide, hydroxide, sulphate, sulfide of inorganic elements ( metals like iron, chromium, cadmium, bismuth, titanium, etc ). - Because of this crystal lattice structure they have strong bonding, for this fact their bonds are not easy to break up by thermal – solar energy therefore no colour fading or last long of colour.
Reflective Pigments b) - Special inorganic pigments Infrared Rays Reflection or Infrared Reflected Pigments. - They are inorganic pigments and are synthesize by subjecting mixtures of metal oxides / hydroxides / nitrates / acetates etc are blended together and strongly heated (very high temperature more than1000°C) and this process is known as CALCINATION process. - The blended inorganic compounds become reactive and rearrange to form new and more stable crystal lattice structure. - Their colour can last long for more than 25 years. - They are also known as “ Complex Inorganic Coloured Pigments ( CICP ) and also call them ‘ Cool Colours’.
Reflective Pigments hexagonal (1 hexad) Crystal Lattice Structure of Inorganic Pigments cubic (4 triads)
Reflective Pigments (ii) Organic Pigments - Mostly they are synthesize and they have inferior properties than inorganic pigments, because of their bond strength / structure they do not have good resistance to solar and thermal energy, therefore the bond will easy to break and their colour cannot last long.
Reflective Pigments • The Four Main Mechanism of Heat Energy Transfer (a) by reflection (b) by emission (c) by convection - is largely depends on air flow (d) by conduction - depend on how well an object is insulated to prevent flows • Total Solar Reflectance (TSR) - describes how much of the solar energy an object reflects. • Reflectivity can be manipulated by the careful selection of high IR reflective pigment. • The key is to reflect IR rays and absorb and reflect in the visible region to produce the needed colour. are the factor that can be manipulated
Reflective Pigments • There are Three System for Energy Saving Paint 1. Thermal insulation ( white pigment – TiO2 ) a) thermal conductivity : K value ( w/mk ) b) heat reflectivity : highest ( >90% ) c) emissivity : high ( >87% ) 2. Solar Reflection ( colour IR reflective pigment ) a) heat reflectivity b) heat emissivity There is no thermal material to block heat radiation and dissipate heat rapidly 3. Hybrid System ( thermal insulation + colour IR reflection pigment ) a) thermal conductivity : K value ( w/mk ) b) heat reflectivity : high c) emissivity : high NOTE : hybrid system for white pigments – TiO2 gives best results than other colours
Reflective Pigments • List of Thermal Conductivity Values
Reflective Pigments Thermal Insulation Infrared Reflective Green Label Coating
Thermal Insulation Data from the spin off company of the National University of Singapore (i) Conductivity - Test equipment utilizes. ASTM E1530
Thermal Insulation Data from the spin off company of the National University of Singapore (ii) Reflectivity - Test equipment accordance to ASTM E1866-97 Standard guide for Establishing Spectrophotometric Performance Test. The result for the tested samples are shown below Thermal insulation coated sample had obtained results that were generally better than those tested for ordinary white paint.
Thermal Insulation Data from the spin off company of the National University of Singapore (iii) Emissivity - The emissivity of the paint sample is summarized below. The result for the tested samples are shown below
Conclusion A test was commissioned to measure the conductivity, reflectivity and emissivity of substrates finished with thermal insulation paints / coatings. • For good insulation properties, the paint layer should have low conductivity value. Thermal insulation coating was tested to have good conductivity value of 0.034 w/mk , with ordinary paint the conductivity value was 0.20w/mk. • Cool paints should also exhibit high reflectivity so that solar rays of NIR region may be reflected. In this respect, thermal insulation coating was tested to have a reflectivity of 91.49% in the NIR range. Ordinary white paint had a reflectivity value 65.62 in the NIR region. Such reflectivity are generally high for cool paints region. • Materials with low emissivity indicate that the radiation of heat energy back to the surrounding is low. Hence, for cool paints, it is desirable to have high emissivity. Thermal insulation had an emissivity value of 0.87(87%).
High Performance Green Label Coating use for Architectural Green Building (Part3) By Mdm. Chang Jeng Ngo Star Chemical Manufacturers Pte. Ltd. Seamaster Paint Manufacturing Bhd (Technical Advisor)
Maintaining the environment air quality during and after painting (1) Use the Green Label paint product for painting the building. - The green label paints are formaldehyde, halogenated solvents, aromatic solvents, NMP( N- methyl pyrrolidone ), heavy metal and Epichlorohydrin free but they still contains certain amount of VOC content. - When the temperature increase, the low VOC content of the solvent will evaporate into the air. (2) Good ventilation during painting - During painting, windows should be opened to get the good ventilation. After painting it will have the eco-friendly environment.
Maintaining the environment air quality during and after painting (3) Why we need the good ventilation during and after painting - Fresh air for good ventilation a. normal fresh air has about 21% volume of oxygen b. the minimum safe level of oxygen is 19.5% volume c. not safe level of oxygen content( % volume ) i) 16% volume oxygen ‒ slightly difficult in breathing and ringing in the ears may be evident ii) 12 – 15% volume oxygen ‒ a person may not be able to think iii) < 10% volume oxygen ‒ the victim may lose consciousness and die iv) ≤ 6% volume oxygen, the victim immediately loss of consciousness (4) By using solventless Green Label coating is safer but expensive.
Ingredients of paints for Green Label product standard (1) Pigments - non heavy metal type (2) Binder - non halogenated type (3) Solvent - with boiling point ≥250°C (4) Additives a. pigment dispersant - low VOC / non VOC type b. surfactants - APEO free type c. defoamers - non or low VOC containing defoamers e. thickeners - non water sensitive and non VOC containing type f. biocides - non heavy metal and NMP free type g. UV and heat stabilizer - should comply with Green Label type h. Adhesion promoter - formaldehyde free type - The above each item should comply with the Green Label Standard.
Ensuring paint with high quality and long lasting durability performance Good and Reliable Heat Insulation - IR Reflective Green Label Energy Saving Product (Coating) is depended on many factors : (1) Knowledge and experiences of formulators - quality polymer binder - type insulation materials - IR reflection materials - additives (2) Selection of Raw Materials - selection of quality of raw materials of each item (3) Perfect balance of recipes of formulation - formulate with good, perfect balance and correct amount of each item of raw materials for the formulation. (4) Laboratory equipment for trial and testing - by rigorous testing of paint properties, eg. Dirt pick up resistance, weathering, wet scrub testing, etc.
Ensuring paint with high quality and long lasting durability performance (5) Independent laboratory evaluation - to further ensure the paint quality and to recognize the paint quality for the public (6) Quality control for raw materials and each production batch - to conform each batch of the raw materials, finish product to comply with the Standards (7) Correct site application - to strictly supervise and monitor the site application
Providing remarkable protection with a rich sense of tones and hues By using Thermal Insulating, IR Heat Reflecting Energy Saving and Green Label Technologies to produce the Eco-Friendly and Energy Saving Water Borne Coating Products. (a) Performance and Durability with remarkable protection and a rich sense of tones and hues depends on 1) Quality of polymer binder - should have good weathering properties and water resistance properties 2) Type of insulating materials - should have high heat reflection properties and very low K value (conductivity) 3) Type of IR heat reflection pigments - should have high TSR (Total Solar Reflection) value to reflect more heat 4) Perfect balancing in formulation - to add the right type and right amount of each item in the formulation 5) IR reflective pigments ability can endure in harsh environments over the past 30years 6) IR reflective pigments is durable than non IR reflection pigments, some inorganic pigments and organic pigments 7) Selection of good binder with IR reflective pigment will provide remarkable protective coating
Providing remarkable protection with a rich sense of tones and hues (b) Cooler roofs and wall means 1) more comfortable 2) enhance productive 3) energy saving – less energy bill 4) prolong life span of substrates (roof / wall material) 5) save our environment
APPENDIX - 1 Evaluation of performance In-house experimental setup for measuring the infrared reflectivity of pigment - The samples were evaluated using Lab test devised to evaluate the pigment samples used in the present study. The coating were applied on cement roof sheet or tin plate and exposed to infrared lamp. - The distance between the panel and the lamp(s) was maintained at fixed distance (30-60cm). A thermocouple was attached on the other side of the panel and recorded the temperature the panels were allowed to equilibrate for 30 to 60minutes before the temperature was recorded. - The same procedure was followed for an uncoated panel. The difference in the temperature at the reverse side of both the panels showed whether the pigments used were infrared reflective or not.
APPENDIX – 2 BENEFITS OF INFRARED REFLECTIVE COATINGS § Longer life cycle due to less polymer degradation and thermal expansion due to lower temperature. § Aesthetically pleasing colours. § Cooler to touch for better handling § Improved system durability and less thermal degradation. § Less heat to transfer into building § Reduced “ Urban Heat Island Effect “. § Low energy demand for air conditioning, particular in equatorial regions. § Reduction in air pollution due to low energy usage, power plant emissions, and reduction in urban air temperatures