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Chapter 1.1

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Chapter 1.1

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  1. Chapter 1.1 Digital Computers : Hardware Organization

  2. The Sequential Computer Data Memory Arithmetic Unit Output Interface Control Input Interface Unit Program Memory Program Interface

  3. Input-Output Devices

  4. Printer

  5. Process Control I/O

  6. Data Memory Arithmetic Unit Output Interface Control Input Interface Unit Program Memory Program Interface The Sequential Computer

  7. Memories 00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 00011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 11010 11011 11100 11101 11110 11111

  8. The Sequential Computer Data Memory Arithmetic Unit Output Interface Control Input Interface Unit Program Memory Program Interface

  9. OPC OP1 OP2 RES NEXT Instructions Format Information handling instructions Control instructions OPC OP1 OP2 NEXT1 NEXT2

  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Control 7 8 9 Unit * 0 # Electronic Lock Data Memory Arithmetic Unit Program Memory Program Interface

  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY Data Memory ND = SC = Arithmetic Unit KFL = DDA = Control Unit KDA = Program Memory p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE?

  12. ND = SC = DDA = KFL = 0 COPY #0 ND P2 1 2 3 KDA = 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY

  13. ND = 0 SC = COPY #0 ND P2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  14. ND = 0 SC = COPY #0 SC P3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  15. ND = 0 SC = 0 COPY #0 SC P3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  16. ND = 0 SC = 0 (KFL = 0) = TRUE EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  17. ND = 0 SC = 0 (KFL = 0) = TRUE EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  18. ND = 0 SC = 0 (KFL = 0) = FALSE 1 2 EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 4 5 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 3 KDA = 3 6

  19. ND = 0 SC = 0 (0 * 10) = 0 MUL SC #10 SC P5 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  20. ND = 0 SC = 0 (0 + 3) = 3 ADD SC KDA SC P 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 3

  21. ND = 0 SC = 3 (0 + 3) = 3 ADD SC KDA SC P 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 3

  22. ND = 0 SC = 3 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 3

  23. ND = 0 SC = 3 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  24. ND = 0 SC = 3 (0 + 1) = 1 1 2 3 ND ND P8 ADD #1 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  25. ND = 1 SC = 3 (0 + 1) = 1 1 2 3 ND ND P8 ADD #1 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  26. ND = 1 SC = 3 (1 # 3) = TRUE NE? ND #3 P3 P9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  27. ND = 1 SC = 3 (0 = 0) = TRUE EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  28. ND = 1 SC = 3 (1 = 0) = FALSE EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  29. ND = 1 SC = 3 (3 * 10) = 30 MUL SC #10 SC P5 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  30. ND = 1 SC = 30 (3 * 10) = 30 MUL SC #10 SC P5 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  31. ND = 1 SC = 30 (30 + 2) = 32 ADD SC KDA SC P6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 2

  32. ND = 1 SC = 32 (30 + 2) = 32 ADD SC KDA SC P6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 2

  33. ND = 1 SC = 32 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 2

  34. ND = 1 SC = 32 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  35. ND = 1 SC = 32 (1 + 1) = 2 ADD ND #1 ND P8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  36. ND = 2 SC = 32 (1 + 1) = 2 ADD ND #1 ND P8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  37. ND = 2 SC = 32 (2 # 3) = TRUE NE? ND #3 P3 P8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  38. ND = 2 SC = 32 (0 = 0) = TRUE EQ? KFL #0 P3 P4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  39. ND = 2 SC = 32 (1 = 0) = FALSE EQ? P4 KFL #0 P3 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  40. ND = 2 SC = 32 (32 * 10) = 320 MUL SC #10 SC P5 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  41. ND = 2 SC = 320 (32 * 10) = 320 MUL SC #10 SC P5 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 1 2 3 KDA = 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 #

  42. ND = 2 SC = 320 (320 + 1) = 321 ADD SC KDA SC P6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 1

  43. ND = 2 SC = 321 (320 + 1) = 321 ADD SC KDA SC P6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 1

  44. ND = 2 SC = 321 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 1 KDA = 1

  45. ND = 2 SC = 321 1 2 3 COPY #0 KFL P7 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  46. ND = 2 SC = 321 (2 + 1) = 3 ADD ND #1 ND P8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  47. ND = 3 SC = 321 (2 + 1) = 3 ADD ND #1 ND P8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  48. ND = 3 SC = 321 (3 # 3) = FALSE NE? ND #3 P3 P9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  49. ND = 3 SC = 321 (321 # 321) = FALSE NE? SC #321 P1 P10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY DDA = KFL = 0 KDA =

  50. ND = 3 SC = 321 COPY #1 DDA P1 DDA = 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p1 #0 ND P2 COPY * 0 # p2 #0 SC P3 COPY p3 KFL #0 P3 P4 EQ? p4 SC #10 SC P5 MUL p5 ADD SC KDA SC P6 p6 #0 KFL P7 COPY p7 ND #1 ND P8 ADD p8 ND #3 P3 P9 NE? p9 SC #321 P1 P10 NE? p10 #1 DDA P1 COPY KFL = 0 KDA =