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UPA Package 2, Module 4. OVERVIEW OF LAND USE CONTROL AND LAND USE PLANNING. What is Land Use Control.

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upa package 2 module 4
UPA Package 2, Module 4
  • OVERVIEW OF LAND USE CONTROL AND LAND USE PLANNING
what is land use control
What is Land Use Control

Land use control means influence and limitation imposed on land use activity and process in order to achieve set land use under some circumstances, which promotes the land use developing toward anticipated target.

what is land use control1
What is Land Use Control
  • Governments determine how land is to be developed and used in a variety of ways.
  • Direct acquisition (purchase or expropriation);
  • The provision of incentives (strategies, schemes and programmes)
  • Regulations (zoning, site plan control, building regulations and development control).
what is land use planning
What is Land Use Planning

Relationship Between land use planning and land use control

One technical task of LUP is to provide correct land use scheme

LUP is the key measure to implement land use control

what is land use planning1
What is Land Use Planning

The purpose of land use planning

to help local decision makers, developers and citizens determine how the community envisions future development.

to ensure compatible land uses and to manage development and growth.

what is land use planning2
What is Land Use Planning
  • In principles of German Land Law, the objectives of planning is defined as:
  • land use planning shall protect and promote:
  • sustainable urban development
  • social justice in land use
  • an environment worthy of human beings, and the natural foundations of human existence
what is land use planning3
What is Land Use Planning

Land use planning and Land use plan

Land use planning: dynamic process

Land use plan: static outcomes

land use planning process

GOVERNMENT Federal

State

Regional

Local

MARKET

Land Owners

Developers

Builders

Realtors

Bankers

  • INTERESTS
    • Neighborhoods
    • Environmentalist
    • Economic Developers
    • Farmers
    • Minority Groups

RULES

(planning and development procedures)

LAND PLANNERS

Future Land Use

Current Land Use

Land Use Planning Process

Stakeholders, Planners and Rules in Land Use Planning Process

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INTELLIGENCE

  • Building and maintaining an information system
  • Analyzing and interpreting data
  • Disseminating information

reports, maps, tables, diskettes

  • ADVANCE PLANNING
  • Formulating and adopting policy
  • Formulating and adopting a development management system and specific legislation
  • PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Analyzing and solving unanticipated problem
  • Assessing proposals to change development management system or develop land

oral presentations, memos, issue papers, draft ordinances

plans, legislation

  • DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT
  • Applying, enforcing, and improving ordinances, plans, capital improvement programs, acquisitions, information and other elements of the development system

Permits, inspections, sanctions, community facilities, acquisitions, advice, etc

DEVELOPMENT

Four Functions in Land Use Planning Process

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The verbal policy plan

  • The land classification plan
  • The land use design
  • The development management plan

The policy plan

long-range

shorter-range

Land Use Planning Process

Major Forms of Land Use Planning in Advance Planning Function

the contemporary hybrid plan
The contemporary hybrid plan
  • Example of A Verbal Policy Plan
  • The Calvert County, MD Comprehensive Plan, 1983
  • It was the winner of a 1985 APA award
  • Its policies are concise, easy to grasp, and grouped in sections corresponding to the six divisions of county government responsible for implementation
  • It remains a policy plan, because it does not specify a program of specific actions for development management
  • It contains no land use map
the contemporary hybrid plan1
The contemporary hybrid plan
  • Example of A Land Classification Plan
  • A Comprehensive Plan for Forsyth County, North Carolina
  • The plan won honorable mention from APA in 1989.
  • it employs a six-category system of districts, plus a category for activity centers
  • it identifies both short- and long-range growth areas (4A and 4B)
  • policies applicable to each district are detailed in the plan.
the contemporary hybrid plan2
The contemporary hybrid plan
  • Example of A Land Use Design Map
  • The 1990 Howard County (Maryland) General Plan
  • It was the winner of an APA award in 1991
  • adds new types of goals, policies, and planning techniques.
  • organizes around six themes/chapters instead of the customary plan elements
the contemporary hybrid plan4
The contemporary hybrid plan

Example of A Development Management Plan

The Sanibel, Florida, Comprehensive Land Use Plan (1981)

The plan outlines the standards and procedures of regulations (i.e., the means of implementation)

Plan and implementation are merged into one instrument,

the contemporary hybrid plan6
The contemporary hybrid plan
  • Example of A Contemporary Hybrid Plan
  • Toward a Sustainable Seattle: A Plan for Managing Growth (1994)
  • The plan is designed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Growth Management Act.
  • 3 core values-social equity, environmental stewardship, and economic security
  • The goal is to be achieved by integrating plans for land use and transportation, healthy and affordable housing, and careful capital investment in a civic compact based on a shared vision
the contemporary hybrid plan7
The contemporary hybrid plan
  • Example of A Contemporary Hybrid Plan
  • Sustainable Seattle
  • The land use element designates urban center villages, hub urban villages, residential urban villages, neighborhood villages, and manufacturing/industrial centers, each with specific design guidelines
  • The city's capacity for growth is identified, and then allocated according to the urban village strategy
  • Future development is directed to mixed-use neighborhoods
  • Detailed land use policies carry out the plan
the contemporary hybrid plan9
The contemporary hybrid plan

Another Example of A Contemporary Hybrid Plan

Loudoun County Choices and Changes: General Plan (1991)

The plan won APA's 1994 award for comprehensive planning in small jurisdictions.

Its goals are grouped into three categories:

---Natural and cultural resources goals

---Growth management goals

---Community design goals

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The contemporary hybrid plan

Land Use Analysis

Existing Land Use Inventory and Analysis

The first step in analyzing land use was to conduct an inventory of existing uses.

(Existing land uses were digitized from the aerial photos)

The inventory classified land uses into 25 categories.

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The contemporary hybrid plan

the Town ofWashington

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The contemporary hybrid plan

The land use development pattern is influenced by several key factors. They include:

1. Land ownership patterns.

2. Location of agricultural lands.

3. Lands enrolled in Forest Management Programs.

4. Privately owned lands adjacent area lakes.

5. The location and function of State Highway 70.

the Town of Washington

the contemporary hybrid plan14
The contemporary hybrid plan

the Town of Washington

the contemporary hybrid plan15
The contemporary hybrid plan

Town of Washington

Development Regulations

A zoning ordinance consists of a map and a written text.

The zoning map arranges the community into districts or zones...conservancy, agriculture, residential, commercial, industrial, etc.

Within each of these districts, the text of the zoning ordinances specifies the permitted land uses, the size of buildings, yard/lot dimensions, and other prerequisites.

the contemporary hybrid plan16
The contemporary hybrid plan

the Town of Washington

the contemporary hybrid plan17
The contemporary hybrid plan

Town of Washington

The town and county should utilize it as a guide for reviewing subdivision plats, certified survey maps, rezoning requests, updating the town zoning map, and other land use proposals.

The town has many additional local ordinances that may affect land use or have some regulatory impact on development.

the contemporary hybrid plan18
The contemporary hybrid plan

the Town of Washington

the contemporary hybrid plan19
The contemporary hybrid plan

Permit Analysis

The issuance of permits relate the incidence of new housing starts, rezonings, or the number of land transactions into activity trends that impact the landscape.

the Town of Washington

An additional measure that assists in the illustration of the growth in residential housing and commercial development activity for the Town is building permit activity.

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The contemporary hybrid plan

the Town of Washington

planning system and land use planning2
Planning System and Land Use Planning

LUP at different planning levels