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Ecology & Biomes. Ecology. Def. – Interactions between organisms & the environment Biotic factors Behavior Interaction with other species Biota – all living organisms in an environment Abiotic factors Nonliving components – Temp., water, sunlight, wind Chemical & physical factors.

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Ecology & Biomes


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    1. Ecology & Biomes

    2. Ecology • Def. – Interactions between organisms & the environment • Biotic factors • Behavior • Interaction with other species • Biota – all living organisms in an environment • Abiotic factors • Nonliving components – Temp., water, sunlight, wind • Chemical & physical factors

    3. Example: Biotic Factors • Behavior is the most important factor for determining distribution of a population • Biotic factors are also important • Predators or prey may influence ability to survive • Kelp (algae) are predated by herbivorous sea urchins & limpets

    4. Biotic & Abiotic Factors

    5. Red Kangaroo distribution? NOTE: Australia is dry in the center, wet in periphery **Highest concentration is found in regions with low precipitation rates **Lowest concentration is found in regions that are cold or hot, but always are wet

    6. Climate • Composed of 4 abiotic factors: • TWSW (That’s Wat She Waid?) • Temperature • Water • Sunlight • Wind • Temperature & water = Most Important Limiting Factors (MILFs)

    7. Climate Patterns • 2 main climate patterns • Macroclimate • Global, regional or local levels • Microclimate • Small-scale environmental variations • Under a log • Tree canopy vs. forest floor

    8. Biomes • Def. – the major types of ecosystems that occupy broad geographic regions • 2 main Types • Aquatic • Freshwater • Marine • Terrestrial • Forrests, grasslands, desert, etc.

    9. Aquatic Biomes Vertical Zonation Photic Zone -- Enough sunlight for photosynthesis Aphotic zone -- Yep, u guessed it Benthic zone -- Bottom of the biome -- Sand, organic sediment, and ooze (inorganic sediment) Detritus -- dead organic matter that falls from photic zone Pelagic zone – open water

    10. Thermocline -- Layer of fast temperature change that separate a uniformly warm upper layer and a uniformly cold deeper layer -- Ocean & most lakes -- Especially seen during summer & winter

    11. Freshwater Biomes • Standing bodies of H2O • Lakes & wetlands • Moving bodies of H2O • Streams, rivers, & estuaries

    12. Freshwater Lakes ONLY • Littoral Zone • -- Shallow & well-lit waters • -- Close to shore •  Features rooted or floating aquatic plants • Limnetic Zone • -- Deep, but well lit waters • -- Far from shore • Occupied by phytoplankton &cyanobacteria

    13. 2 Types of Lakes • Oligotrophic • Normal, healthy water • Nutrient-poor water • Oxygen-Rich water • Eutrophic • Algal blooms • Nutrient-rich water • Oxygen poor water

    14. Estuaries • Transition area between river and sea • Complex flow pattern • Low-density freshwater lies on top of high-density saltwater